使用二进制方式安装 Kubernetes 1.18.3 版本(近六万字)

使用二进制方式安装 Kubernetes 1.18.3 版本

一、Kubernetes 简介

Kubernetes,也称为 K8s,是由 Google 公司开源的容器集群管理系统,在 Docker 技术的基础上,为容器化的应用提供部署运行、资源调度、服务发现和动态伸缩等一系列完整功能,提高了大规模容器集群管理的便捷性。Kubernetes 官方

1.Kubernetes 架构设计图

Kubernetes 是由一个 Master 和多个 Node 组成,Master 通过 API 提供服务,并接收 Kubectl 发送过来的请求来调度管理整个集群。

Kubectl 是 K8s 平台的管理命令。
在这里插入图片描述

2.Kubernetes 常见组件介绍

  • APIServer: 所有服务的统一访问入口,并提供认证、授权、访问控制、API 注册和发现等机制;
  • Controller Manager(控制器): 主要就是用来维持 Pod 的一个副本数,比如故障检测、自动扩展、滚动更新等;
  • Scheduler(调度器): 主要就是用来分配任务到合适的节点上(资源调度)
  • ETCD: 键值对数据库,存放了 K8s 集群中所有的重要信息(持久化)
  • Kubelet: 直接和容器引擎交互,用来维护容器的一个生命周期;同时也负责 Volume(CVI)和网络(CNI)的管理;
  • Kube-Porxy: 用于将规则写入至 iptablesIPVS 来实现服务的映射访问;

其它组件:

  • CoreDNS:主要就是用来给 K8s 的 Service 提供一个域名和 IP 的对应解析关系。
  • Dashboard:主要就是用来给 K8s 提供一个 B/S 结构的访问体系(即,我们可以通过 Web 界面来对 K8s 进行管理)
  • Ingress Controller:主要就是用来实现 HTTP 代理(七层),官方的 Service 仅支持 TCPUDP 代理(四层)
  • Prometheus:主要就是用来给 K8s 提供一个监控能力,使我们能够更加清晰的看到 K8s 相关组件及 Pod 的使用情况。
  • ELK:主要就是用来给 K8s 提供一个日志分析平台。

Kubernetes 工作原理:

  • 用户可以通过 Kubectl 命令来提交需要运行的 Docker Container 到 K8s 的 APIServer 组件中;
  • 接着 APIServer 接收到用户提交的请求后,会将请求存储到 ETCD 这个键值对存储中;
  • 然后由 Controller Manager 组件来创建出用户定义的控制器类型(Pod ReplicaSet Deployment DaemonSet 等)
  • 然后 Scheduler 组件会对 ETCD 进行扫描,并将用户需要运行的 Docker Container 分配到合适的主机上;
  • 最后由 Kubelet 组件来和 Docker 容器进行交互,创建、删除、停止容器等一系列操作。

kube-proxy 主要就是为 Service 提供服务的,来实现内部从 Pod 到 Service 和外部 NodePort 到 Service 的访问。

二、Kubernetes 二进制方式安装

我们下面的安装方式就是单纯的使用二进制方式安装,并没有对 Kube-APIServer 组件进行高可用配置,因为像我们安装 K8s 的话,其实主要还是为了学习 K8s,通过 K8s 来完成某些事情,所以并不需要关心高可用这块的东西。

要是对 Kubernetes 做高可用的话,其实并不难,像一些在云上的 K8s,一般都是通过 SLB 来代理到两台不同服务器上,来实现高可用;而像云下的 K8s,基本上也是如上,我们可以通过 Keepalived 加 Nginx 来实现高可用。


准备工作:

主机名 操作系统 IP 地址 所需组件
k8s-master01 CentOS 7.4 192.168.1.1 所有组件都安装 (合理利用资源)
k8s-master02 CentOS 7.4 192.168.1.2 所有组件都安装
k8s-node CentOS 7.4 192.168.1.3 docker kubelet kube-proxy

1)在各个节点上配置主机名,并配置 Hosts 文件

[[email protected] ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname k8s-master01
[[email protected] ~]# bash
[[email protected] ~]# cat <<END >> /etc/hosts
192.168.1.1 k8s-master01
192.168.1.2 k8s-master02
192.168.1.3 k8s-node01
END

2)在 k8s-master01 上配置 SSH 密钥对,并将公钥发送给其余主机

[[email protected] ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa												# 三连回车
[[email protected] ~]# ssh-copy-id root@192.168.1.1
[[email protected] ~]# ssh-copy-id root@192.168.1.2
[[email protected] ~]# ssh-copy-id root@192.168.1.3

3)编写 K8s 初始环境脚本

[[email protected] ~]# vim k8s-init.sh
#!/bin/bash
#****************************************************************#
# ScriptName: k8s-init.sh
# Initialize the machine. This needs to be executed on every machine.
# Mkdir k8s directory
yum -y install wget ntpdate && ntpdate ntp1.aliyun.com
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
yum -y install epel-release
mkdir -p /opt/k8s/bin/
mkdir -p /data/k8s/docker
mkdir -p /data/k8s/k8s
# Disable the SELinux.
swapoff -a
sed -i '/swap/s/^/#/' /etc/fstab
# Turn off and disable the firewalld.
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld
# Modify related kernel parameters & Disable the swap.
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 0
vm.swappiness = 0
vm.overcommit_memory = 1
vm.panic_on_oom = 0
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
EOF
sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf >& /dev/null
# Add ipvs modules
cat > /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules << EOF
#!/bin/bash
modprobe -- ip_vs
modprobe -- ip_vs_rr
modprobe -- ip_vs_wrr
modprobe -- ip_vs_sh
modprobe -- br_netfilter
modprobe -- nf_conntrack
modprobe -- nf_conntrack_ipv4
EOF
chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules
source /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules
# Install rpm
yum install -y conntrack ntpdate ntp ipvsadm ipset jq iptables curl sysstat libseccomp wget gcc gcc-c++ make libnl libnl-devel libnfnetlink-devel openssl-devel vim openssl-devel bash-completion
# ADD k8s bin to PATH
echo 'export PATH=/opt/k8s/bin:$PATH' >> /root/.bashrc && chmod +x /root/.bashrc && source /root/.bashrc
[[email protected] ~]# bash k8s-init.sh

4)配置环境变量

[[email protected] ~]# vim environment.sh
#!/bin/bash
# 生成 EncryptionConfig 所需的加密 Key
export ENCRYPTION_KEY=$(head -c 32 /dev/urandom | base64)

# 集群 Master 机器 IP 数组
export MASTER_IPS=(192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2)

# 集群 Master IP 对应的主机名数组
export MASTER_NAMES=(k8s-master01 k8s-master02)

# 集群 Node 机器 IP 数组
export NODE_IPS=(192.168.1.3)

# 集群 Node IP 对应的主机名数组
export NODE_NAMES=(k8s-node01)

# 集群所有机器 IP 数组
export ALL_IPS=(192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3)

# 集群所有 IP 对应的主机名数组
export ALL_NAMES=(k8s-master01 k8s-master02 k8s-node01)

# Etcd 集群服务地址列表
export ETCD_ENDPOINTS="https://192.168.1.1:2379,https://192.168.1.2:2379"

# Etcd 集群间通信的 IP 和端口
export ETCD_NODES="k8s-master01=https://192.168.1.1:2380,k8s-master02=https://192.168.1.2:2380"

# Kube-apiserver  IP 和端口
export KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.1.1:6443"

# 节点间互联网络接口名称
export IFACE="ens32"

# Etcd 数据目录
export ETCD_DATA_DIR="/data/k8s/etcd/data"

# Etcd WAL 目录. 建议是 SSD 磁盘分区. 或者和 ETCD_DATA_DIR 不同的磁盘分区
export ETCD_WAL_DIR="/data/k8s/etcd/wal"

# K8s 各组件数据目录
export K8S_DIR="/data/k8s/k8s"

# Docker 数据目录
export DOCKER_DIR="/data/k8s/docker"

## 以下参数一般不需要修改
# TLS Bootstrapping 使用的 Token. 可以使用命令 head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' ' 生成
BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN="41f7e4ba8b7be874fcff18bf5cf41a7c"

# 最好使用当前未用的网段来定义服务网段和 Pod 网段
# 服务网段. 部署前路由不可达. 部署后集群内路由可达(kube-proxy 保证)
SERVICE_CIDR="10.20.0.0/16"

# Pod 网段. 建议 /16 段地址. 部署前路由不可达. 部署后集群内路由可达(flanneld 保证)
CLUSTER_CIDR="10.10.0.0/16"

# 服务端口范围 (NodePort Range)
export NODE_PORT_RANGE="1-65535"

# Flanneld 网络配置前缀
export FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX="/kubernetes/network"

# Kubernetes 服务 IP (一般是 SERVICE_CIDR 中第一个 IP)
export CLUSTER_KUBERNETES_SVC_IP="10.20.0.1"

# 集群 DNS 服务 IP ( SERVICE_CIDR 中预分配)
export CLUSTER_DNS_SVC_IP="10.20.0.254"

# 集群 DNS 域名(末尾不带点号)
export CLUSTER_DNS_DOMAIN="cluster.local"

# 将二进制目录 /opt/k8s/bin 加到 PATH 
export PATH=/opt/k8s/bin:$PATH
  • 上面像那些 IP 地址和网卡啥的,你们要改成自身对应的信息。
[[email protected] ~]# chmod +x environment.sh && source environment.sh

下面的这些操作,我们只需要在 k8s-master01 主机上操作即可(因为下面我们会通过 for 循环来发送到其余主机上)

1.创建 CA 证书和密钥

因为 Kubernetes 系统的各个组件需要使用 TLS 证书对其通信加密以及授权认证,所以我们需要在安装前先生成相关的 TLS 证书;我们可以使用 openssl cfssl easyrsa 来生成 Kubernetes 的相关证书,我们下面使用的是 cfssl 方式。


1)安装 cfssl 工具集

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /opt/k8s/cert
[[email protected] ~]# curl -L https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64 -o /opt/k8s/bin/cfssl
[[email protected] ~]# curl -L https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64 -o /opt/k8s/bin/cfssljson
[[email protected] ~]# curl -L https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 -o /opt/k8s/bin/cfssl-certinfo
[[email protected] ~]# chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*

2)创建根证书配置文件

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /opt/k8s/work
[[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/k8s/work/
[[email protected] work]# cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
    "signing": {
        "default": {
            "expiry": "876000h"
        },
        "profiles": {
            "kubernetes": {
                "expiry": "876000h",
                "usages": [
                    "signing",
                    "key encipherment",
                    "server auth",
                    "client auth"
                ]
            }
        }
    }
}
EOF
  • signing:表示当前证书可用于签名其它证书;
  • server auth:表示 Client 可以用这个 CA 对 Server 提供的证书进行校验;
  • client auth:表示 Server 可以用这个 CA 对 Client 提供的证书进行验证;
  • "expiry": "876000h":表示当前证书有效期为 100 年;

3)创建根证书签名请求文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "ST": "Shanghai",
            "L": "Shanghai",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ],
    "ca": {
        "expiry": "876000h"
 }
}
EOF
  • CN:Kube-APIServer 将会把这个字段作为请求的用户名,来让浏览器验证网站是否合法。
  • C:国家;ST:州,省;L:地区,城市;O:组织名称,公司名称;OU:组织单位名称,公司部门。

4)生成 CA 密钥 ca-key.pem 和证书 ca.pem

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca
  • 生成证书后,因为 Kubernetes 集群需要 双向 TLS 认证,所以我们可以将生成的文件传送到所有主机中。

5)使用 for 循环来遍历数组,将配置发送给所有主机

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/cert"
    scp ca*.pem ca-config.json root@${all_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/cert
  done

2.安装 ETCD 组件

ETCD 是基于 Raft 的分布式 key-value 存储系统,由 CoreOS 开发,常用于服务发现、共享配置以及并发控制(如 leader 选举、分布式锁等);Kubernetes 主要就是用 ETCD 来存储所有的运行数据。


下载 ETCD

[[email protected] work]# wget https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.3.22/etcd-v3.3.22-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# tar -zxf etcd-v3.3.22-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp etcd-v3.3.22-linux-amd64/etcd* root@${master_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin
    ssh root@${master_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done

1)创建 ETCD 证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cat > etcd-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
        "127.0.0.1",
        "192.168.1.1",
        "192.168.1.2"
  ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "ST": "Shanghai",
            "L": "Shanghai",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF
  • hosts:用来指定给 ETCD 授权的 IP 地址或域名列表。

2)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes etcd-csr.json | cfssljson -bare etcd
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p /etc/etcd/cert"
    scp etcd*.pem root@${master_ip}:/etc/etcd/cert/
  done

3)创建启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > etcd.service.template << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
Documentation=https://github.com/coreos

[Service]
Type=notify
WorkingDirectory=${ETCD_DATA_DIR}
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/etcd 
  --enable-v2=true 
  --data-dir=${ETCD_DATA_DIR} 
  --wal-dir=${ETCD_WAL_DIR} 
  --name=##MASTER_NAME## 
  --cert-file=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem 
  --key-file=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem 
  --trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --peer-cert-file=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem 
  --peer-key-file=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem 
  --peer-trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --peer-client-cert-auth 
  --client-cert-auth 
  --listen-peer-urls=https://##MASTER_IP##:2380 
  --initial-advertise-peer-urls=https://##MASTER_IP##:2380 
  --listen-client-urls=https://##MASTER_IP##:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379 
  --advertise-client-urls=https://##MASTER_IP##:2379 
  --initial-cluster-token=etcd-cluster-0 
  --initial-cluster=${ETCD_NODES} 
  --initial-cluster-state=new 
  --auto-compaction-mode=periodic 
  --auto-compaction-retention=1 
  --max-request-bytes=33554432 
  --quota-backend-bytes=6442450944 
  --heartbeat-interval=250 
  --election-timeout=2000
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for (( A=0; A < 2; A++ ))
do
sed -e "s/##MASTER_NAME##/${MASTER_NAMES[A]}/" -e "s/##MASTER_IP##/${MASTER_IPS[A]}/" etcd.service.template > etcd-${MASTER_IPS[A]}.service
done

4)启动 ETCD

[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp etcd-${master_ip}.service root@${master_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/etcd.service
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p ${ETCD_DATA_DIR} ${ETCD_WAL_DIR}"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable etcd && systemctl restart etcd"
  done

查看 ETCD 当前的 Leader(领导)

[[email protected] work]# ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/k8s/bin/etcdctl 
-w table --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
--cert=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd.pem 
--key=/etc/etcd/cert/etcd-key.pem 
--endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} endpoint status

在这里插入图片描述

3.安装 Docker 服务

Docker 运行和管理容器,Kubelet 通过 Container Runtime Interface (CRI) 与它进行交互。


下载 Docker

[[email protected] work]# wget https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/docker-19.03.12.tgz
[[email protected] work]# tar -zxf docker-19.03.12.tgz

安装 Docker

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp docker/*  root@${all_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin/
    ssh root@${all_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done

Docker 在 1.13 版本开始,可能将 iptables

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]} 
  do 
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "/sbin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "echo '/sbin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT' >> /etc/rc.local"
  done

1)创建启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > docker.service << "EOF"
[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=http://docs.docker.io

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=##DOCKER_DIR##
Environment="PATH=/opt/k8s/bin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin"
EnvironmentFile=-/run/flannel/docker
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/dockerd $DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
[[email protected] work]# sed -i -e "s|##DOCKER_DIR##|${DOCKER_DIR}|" docker.service
[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp docker.service root@${all_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/
  done

配置 daemon.json 文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json << EOF
{
    "registry-mirrors": ["https://ipbtg5l0.mirror.aliyuncs.com"],
    "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=cgroupfs"],
    "data-root": "${DOCKER_DIR}/data",
    "exec-root": "${DOCKER_DIR}/exec",
    "log-driver": "json-file",
    "log-opts": {
      "max-size": "100m",
      "max-file": "5"
    },
    "storage-driver": "overlay2",
    "storage-opts": [
      "overlay2.override_kernel_check=true"
  ]
}
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "mkdir -p /etc/docker/ ${DOCKER_DIR}/{data,exec}"
    scp docker-daemon.json root@${all_ip}:/etc/docker/daemon.json
  done

2)启动 Docker

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable docker --now"
  done

4.安装 Flannel 网络插件

Flannel 是一种基于 overlay 网络的跨主机容器网络解决方案,也就是将 TCP 数据封装在另一种网络包里面进行路由转发和通信。Flannel 是使用 Go 语言开发的,主要就是用来让不同主机内的容器实现互联。


下载 Flannel

[[email protected] work]# mkdir flannel
[[email protected] work]# wget https://github.com/coreos/flannel/releases/download/v0.11.0/flannel-v0.11.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# tar -zxf flannel-v0.11.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz -C flannel
[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp flannel/{flanneld,mk-docker-opts.sh} root@${all_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin/
    ssh root@${all_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done

1)创建 Flannel 证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cat > flanneld-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "flanneld",
    "hosts": [],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "ST": "Shanghai",
            "L": "Shanghai",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

2)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes flanneld-csr.json | cfssljson -bare flanneld
[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "mkdir -p /etc/flanneld/cert"
    scp flanneld*.pem root@${all_ip}:/etc/flanneld/cert
  done

配置 Pod 的网段信息

[[email protected] work]# etcdctl 
--endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
--ca-file=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem 
--cert-file=/opt/k8s/work/flanneld.pem 
--key-file=/opt/k8s/work/flanneld-key.pem 
mk ${FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX}/config '{"Network":"'${CLUSTER_CIDR}'", "SubnetLen": 21, "Backend": {"Type": "vxlan"}}'

在这里插入图片描述

3)编写启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > flanneld.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Flanneld overlay address etcd agent
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
After=etcd.service
Before=docker.service

[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/flanneld 
  -etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  -etcd-certfile=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld.pem 
  -etcd-keyfile=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld-key.pem 
  -etcd-endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
  -etcd-prefix=${FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX} 
  -iface=${IFACE} 
  -ip-masq
ExecStartPost=/opt/k8s/bin/mk-docker-opts.sh -k DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS -d /run/flannel/docker
Restart=always
RestartSec=5
StartLimitInterval=0

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
RequiredBy=docker.service
EOF

4)启动并验证

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp flanneld.service root@${all_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/
    ssh root@${all_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable flanneld --now"
  done

1)查看 Pod 网段信息

[[email protected] work]# etcdctl 
--endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
--ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
--cert-file=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld.pem 
--key-file=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld-key.pem 
get ${FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX}/config

在这里插入图片描述
2)查看已分配的 Pod 子网段列表

[[email protected] work]# etcdctl 
--endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
--ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
--cert-file=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld.pem 
--key-file=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld-key.pem 
ls ${FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX}/subnets

在这里插入图片描述
3)查看某一 Pod 网段对应的节点 IP 和 Flannel 接口地址

[[email protected] work]# etcdctl 
--endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
--ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
--cert-file=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld.pem 
--key-file=/etc/flanneld/cert/flanneld-key.pem 
get ${FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX}/subnets/10.10.208.0-21

在这里插入图片描述

5.安装 Kubectl 服务

下载 Kubectl

[[email protected] work]# wget https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.18.3/kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# tar -zxf kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kubernetes/client/bin/kubectl root@${master_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin/
    ssh root@${master_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done

1)创建 Admin 证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cat > admin-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "admin",
    "hosts": [],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "ST": "Shanghai",
            "L": "Shanghai",
            "O": "system:masters",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

3)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

4)创建 Kubeconfig 文件

配置集群参数

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes 
--certificate-authority=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem 
--embed-certs=true 
--server=${KUBE_APISERVER} 
--kubeconfig=kubectl.kubeconfig

配置客户端认证参数

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-credentials admin 
--client-certificate=/opt/k8s/work/admin.pem 
--client-key=/opt/k8s/work/admin-key.pem 
--embed-certs=true 
--kubeconfig=kubectl.kubeconfig

配置上下文参数

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-context kubernetes 
--cluster=kubernetes 
--user=admin 
--kubeconfig=kubectl.kubeconfig

配置默认上下文

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config use-context kubernetes --kubeconfig=kubectl.kubeconfig

5)创建 Kubectl 配置文件,并配置命令补全工具

[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p ~/.kube"
    scp kubectl.kubeconfig root@${master_ip}:~/.kube/config
    ssh root@${master_ip} "echo 'export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/.kube/config' >> ~/.bashrc"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "echo 'source <(kubectl completion bash)' >> ~/.bashrc"
  done

下面命令需要在 k8s-master01k8s-master02 上配置:

[[email protected] work]# source /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion
[[email protected] work]# source <(kubectl completion bash)
[[email protected] work]# bash ~/.bashrc

三、安装 Kubenetes 相关组件

1.安装 Kube-APIServer 组件

下载 Kubernetes 二进制文件

[[email protected] work]# wget https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.18.3/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# tar -zxf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[[email protected] work]# cd kubernetes
[[email protected] kubernetes]# tar -zxf kubernetes-src.tar.gz
[[email protected] kubernetes]# cd ..
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp -rp kubernetes/server/bin/{apiextensions-apiserver,kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,kubeadm,kubectl,mounter} root@${master_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin/
    ssh root@${master_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done

1)创建 Kubernetes 证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cat > kubernetes-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "kubernetes",
  "hosts": [
    "127.0.0.1",
    "192.168.1.1",
    "192.168.1.2",
    "${CLUSTER_KUBERNETES_SVC_IP}",
    "kubernetes",
    "kubernetes.default",
    "kubernetes.default.svc",
    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local."
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Shanghai",
      "L": "Shanghai",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

2)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kubernetes-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kubernetes
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/cert"
    scp kubernetes*.pem root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/cert/
  done

3)配置 Kube-APIServer 审计

创建加密配置文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > encryption-config.yaml << EOF
kind: EncryptionConfig
apiVersion: v1
resources:
  - resources:
      - secrets
    providers:
      - aescbc:
          keys:
            - name: zhangsan
              secret: ${ENCRYPTION_KEY}
      - identity: {}
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp encryption-config.yaml root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/encryption-config.yaml
  done

创建审计策略文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > audit-policy.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: audit.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Policy
rules:
  # The following requests were manually identified as high-volume and low-risk, so drop them.
  - level: None
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - endpoints
          - services
          - services/status
    users:
      - 'system:kube-proxy'
    verbs:
      - watch

  - level: None
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - nodes
          - nodes/status
    userGroups:
      - 'system:nodes'
    verbs:
      - get

  - level: None
    namespaces:
      - kube-system
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - endpoints
    users:
      - 'system:kube-controller-manager'
      - 'system:kube-scheduler'
      - 'system:serviceaccount:kube-system:endpoint-controller'
    verbs:
      - get
      - update

  - level: None
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - namespaces
          - namespaces/status
          - namespaces/finalize
    users:
      - 'system:apiserver'
    verbs:
      - get

  # Don't log HPA fetching metrics.
  - level: None
    resources:
      - group: metrics.k8s.io
    users:
      - 'system:kube-controller-manager'
    verbs:
      - get
      - list

  # Don't log these read-only URLs.
  - level: None
    nonResourceURLs:
      - '/healthz*'
      - /version
      - '/swagger*'

  # Don't log events requests.
  - level: None
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - events

  # node and pod status calls from nodes are high-volume and can be large, don't log responses for expected updates from nodes
  - level: Request
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - nodes/status
          - pods/status
    users:
      - kubelet
      - 'system:node-problem-detector'
      - 'system:serviceaccount:kube-system:node-problem-detector'
    verbs:
      - update
      - patch

  - level: Request
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - nodes/status
          - pods/status
    userGroups:
      - 'system:nodes'
    verbs:
      - update
      - patch

  # deletecollection calls can be large, don't log responses for expected namespace deletions
  - level: Request
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
    users:
      - 'system:serviceaccount:kube-system:namespace-controller'
    verbs:
      - deletecollection

  # Secrets, ConfigMaps, and TokenReviews can contain sensitive & binary data,
  # so only log at the Metadata level.
  - level: Metadata
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
    resources:
      - group: ""
        resources:
          - secrets
          - configmaps
      - group: authentication.k8s.io
        resources:
          - tokenreviews
  # Get repsonses can be large; skip them.
  - level: Request
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
    resources:
      - group: ""
      - group: admissionregistration.k8s.io
      - group: apiextensions.k8s.io
      - group: apiregistration.k8s.io
      - group: apps
      - group: authentication.k8s.io
      - group: authorization.k8s.io
      - group: autoscaling
      - group: batch
      - group: certificates.k8s.io
      - group: extensions
      - group: metrics.k8s.io
      - group: networking.k8s.io
      - group: policy
      - group: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      - group: scheduling.k8s.io
      - group: settings.k8s.io
      - group: storage.k8s.io
    verbs:
      - get
      - list
      - watch

  # Default level for known APIs
  - level: RequestResponse
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
    resources:
      - group: ""
      - group: admissionregistration.k8s.io
      - group: apiextensions.k8s.io
      - group: apiregistration.k8s.io
      - group: apps
      - group: authentication.k8s.io
      - group: authorization.k8s.io
      - group: autoscaling
      - group: batch
      - group: certificates.k8s.io
      - group: extensions
      - group: metrics.k8s.io
      - group: networking.k8s.io
      - group: policy
      - group: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      - group: scheduling.k8s.io
      - group: settings.k8s.io
      - group: storage.k8s.io

  # Default level for all other requests.
  - level: Metadata
    omitStages:
      - RequestReceived
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp audit-policy.yaml root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml
  done

4)配置 Metrics-Server

创建 metrics-server 的 CA 证书请求文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > proxy-client-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:metrics-server",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Shanghai",
      "L": "Shanghai",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes proxy-client-csr.json | cfssljson -bare proxy-client
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp proxy-client*.pem root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/cert/
  done

5)创建启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-apiserver.service.template << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=${K8S_DIR}/kube-apiserver
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/kube-apiserver 
  --insecure-port=0 
  --secure-port=6443 
  --bind-address=##MASTER_IP## 
  --advertise-address=##MASTER_IP## 
  --default-not-ready-toleration-seconds=360 
  --default-unreachable-toleration-seconds=360 
  --feature-gates=DynamicAuditing=true 
  --max-mutating-requests-inflight=2000 
  --max-requests-inflight=4000 
  --default-watch-cache-size=200 
  --delete-collection-workers=2 
  --encryption-provider-config=/etc/kubernetes/encryption-config.yaml 
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kubernetes.pem 
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kubernetes-key.pem 
  --etcd-servers=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kubernetes.pem 
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kubernetes-key.pem 
  --audit-dynamic-configuration 
  --audit-log-maxage=30 
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 
  --audit-log-truncate-enabled=true 
  --audit-log-path=${K8S_DIR}/kube-apiserver/audit.log 
  --audit-policy-file=/etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml 
  --profiling 
  --anonymous-auth=false 
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true 
  --requestheader-allowed-names="system:metrics-server" 
  --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra- 
  --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group 
  --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User 
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC 
  --runtime-config=api/all=true 
  --enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,DefaultTolerationSeconds,MutatingAdmissionWebhook,ValidatingAdmissionWebhook,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction 
  --allow-privileged=true 
  --apiserver-count=3 
  --event-ttl=168h 
  --kubelet-certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kubernetes.pem 
  --kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kubernetes-key.pem 
  --kubelet-https=true 
  --kubelet-timeout=10s 
  --proxy-client-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/proxy-client.pem 
  --proxy-client-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/proxy-client-key.pem 
  --service-cluster-ip-range=${SERVICE_CIDR} 
  --service-node-port-range=${NODE_PORT_RANGE} 
  --logtostderr=true 
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=10
Type=notify
LimitNOFILE=65535

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

6)启动 Kube-APIServer 并验证

[[email protected] work]# for (( A=0; A < 2; A++ ))
  do
    sed -e "s/##MASTER_NAME##/${MASTER_NAMES[A]}/" -e "s/##MASTER_IP##/${MASTER_IPS[A]}/" kube-apiserver.service.template > kube-apiserver-${MASTER_IPS[A]}.service
  done
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-apiserver-${master_ip}.service root@${master_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p ${K8S_DIR}/kube-apiserver"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kube-apiserver --now"
  done

查看 Kube-APIServer 写入 ETCD 的数据

[[email protected] work]# ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl 
--endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} 
--cacert=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem 
--cert=/opt/k8s/work/etcd.pem 
--key=/opt/k8s/work/etcd-key.pem 
get /registry/ --prefix --keys-only

查看集群信息

[[email protected] work]# kubectl cluster-info
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get all --all-namespaces
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get componentstatuses
[[email protected] work]# netstat -anpt | grep 6443

在这里插入图片描述
授予 kube-apiserver 访问 kubelet API 的权限

[[email protected] work]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding kube-apiserver:kubelet-apis --clusterrole=system:kubelet-api-admin --user kubernetes

2.安装 Controller Manager 组件

1)创建 Controller Manager 证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-controller-manager-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-controller-manager",
  "hosts": [
    "127.0.0.1",
    "192.168.1.1",
    "192.168.1.2"
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Shanghai",
      "L": "Shanghai",
      "O": "system:kube-controller-manager",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

2)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-controller-manager-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-controller-manager
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-controller-manager*.pem root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/cert/
  done

3)创建 Kubeconfig 文件

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes 
--certificate-authority=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem 
--embed-certs=true 
--server=${KUBE_APISERVER} 
--kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-credentials system:kube-controller-manager 
--client-certificate=kube-controller-manager.pem 
--client-key=kube-controller-manager-key.pem 
--embed-certs=true 
--kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-context system:kube-controller-manager 
--cluster=kubernetes 
--user=system:kube-controller-manager 
--kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# kubectl config use-context system:kube-controller-manager --kubeconfig=kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/
  done

4)创建启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-controller-manager.service.template << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=${K8S_DIR}/kube-controller-manager
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/kube-controller-manager 
  --secure-port=10257 
  --bind-address=127.0.0.1 
  --profiling 
  --cluster-name=kubernetes 
  --controllers=*,bootstrapsigner,tokencleaner 
  --kube-api-qps=1000 
  --kube-api-burst=2000 
  --leader-elect 
  --use-service-account-credentials
  --concurrent-service-syncs=2 
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-controller-manager.pem 
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-controller-manager-key.pem 
  --authentication-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig 
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --requestheader-allowed-names="system:metrics-server" 
  --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix="X-Remote-Extra-" 
  --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group 
  --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User 
  --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca-key.pem 
  --experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h 
  --horizontal-pod-autoscaler-sync-period=10s 
  --concurrent-deployment-syncs=10 
  --concurrent-gc-syncs=30 
  --node-cidr-mask-size=24 
  --service-cluster-ip-range=${SERVICE_CIDR} 
  --cluster-cidr=${CLUSTER_CIDR} 
  --pod-eviction-timeout=6m 
  --terminated-pod-gc-threshold=10000 
  --root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca-key.pem 
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig 
  --logtostderr=true 
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

4)启动并验证

[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-controller-manager.service.template root@${master_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p ${K8S_DIR}/kube-controller-manager"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kube-controller-manager --now"
  done

查看输出的 Metrics

[[email protected] work]# curl -s --cacert /opt/k8s/work/ca.pem --cert /opt/k8s/work/admin.pem --key /opt/k8s/work/admin-key.pem https://127.0.0.1:10257/metrics | head

查看权限

[[email protected] work]# kubectl describe clusterrole system:kube-controller-manager
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get clusterrole | grep controller
[[email protected] work]# kubectl describe clusterrole system:controller:deployment-controller

查看当前的 Leader

[[email protected] work]# kubectl get endpoints kube-controller-manager --namespace=kube-system -o yaml

3.安装 Kube-Scheduler 组件

1)创建 Kube-Scheduler 证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-scheduler-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-scheduler",
  "hosts": [
    "127.0.0.1",
    "192.168.1.1",
    "192.168.1.2"
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Shanghai",
      "L": "Shanghai",
      "O": "system:kube-scheduler",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

2)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-scheduler-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-scheduler
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-scheduler*.pem root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/cert/
  done

3)创建 Kubeconfig 文件

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes 
--certificate-authority=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem 
--embed-certs=true 
--server=${KUBE_APISERVER} 
--kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-credentials system:kube-scheduler 
--client-certificate=kube-scheduler.pem 
--client-key=kube-scheduler-key.pem 
--embed-certs=true 
--kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-context system:kube-scheduler 
--cluster=kubernetes 
--user=system:kube-scheduler 
--kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# kubectl config use-context system:kube-scheduler --kubeconfig=kube-scheduler.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-scheduler.kubeconfig root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/
  done

4)创建 Kube-Scheduler 配置文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-scheduler.yaml.template << EOF
apiVersion: kubescheduler.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: KubeSchedulerConfiguration
bindTimeoutSeconds: 600
clientConnection:
  burst: 200
  kubeconfig: "/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig"
  qps: 100
enableContentionProfiling: false
enableProfiling: true
hardPodAffinitySymmetricWeight: 1
healthzBindAddress: 127.0.0.1:10251
leaderElection:
  leaderElect: true
metricsBindAddress: 127.0.0.1:10251
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-scheduler.yaml.template root@${master_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.yaml
  done

5)创建启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-scheduler.service.template << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=${K8S_DIR}/kube-scheduler
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/kube-scheduler 
  --port=0 
  --secure-port=10259 
  --bind-address=127.0.0.1 
  --config=/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.yaml 
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-scheduler.pem 
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-scheduler-key.pem 
  --authentication-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig 
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --requestheader-allowed-names="system:metrics-server" 
  --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
  --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix="X-Remote-Extra-" 
  --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group 
  --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User 
  --authorization-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig 
  --logtostderr=true 
  --v=2
Restart=always
RestartSec=5
StartLimitInterval=0

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

6)启动并验证

[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    scp kube-scheduler.service.template root@${master_ip}:/etc/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p ${K8S_DIR}/kube-scheduler"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kube-scheduler --now"
  done
[[email protected] work]# netstat -nlpt | grep kube-schedule
  • 10251:接收 http 请求,非安全端口,不需要认证授权;
  • 10259:接收 https 请求,安全端口,需要认认证授权(两个接口都对外提供 /metrics/healthz 的访问)

查看输出的 Metrics

[[email protected] work]# curl -s --cacert /opt/k8s/work/ca.pem --cert /opt/k8s/work/admin.pem --key /opt/k8s/work/admin-key.pem https://127.0.0.1:10257/metrics | head

查看权限

[[email protected] work]# kubectl describe clusterrole system:kube-controller-manager
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get clusterrole | grep controller
[[email protected] work]# kubectl describe clusterrole system:controller:deployment-controller

查看当前的 Leader

[[email protected] work]# kubectl get endpoints kube-controller-manager --namespace=kube-system -o yaml

4.安装 Kubelet 组件

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp kubernetes/server/bin/kubelet root@${all_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin/
    ssh root@${all_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done
[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    export BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN=$(kubeadm token create 
      --description kubelet-bootstrap-token 
      --groups system:bootstrappers:${all_name} 
      --kubeconfig ~/.kube/config)
    kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes 
      --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem 
      --embed-certs=true 
      --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} 
      --kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap-${all_name}.kubeconfig
    kubectl config set-credentials kubelet-bootstrap 
      --token=${BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN} 
      --kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap-${all_name}.kubeconfig
    kubectl config set-context default 
      --cluster=kubernetes 
      --user=kubelet-bootstrap 
      --kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap-${all_name}.kubeconfig
    kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kubelet-bootstrap-${all_name}.kubeconfig
  done
[[email protected] work]# kubeadm token list --kubeconfig ~/.kube/config					# 查看 Kubeadm 为各节点创建的 Token
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get secrets -n kube-system | grep bootstrap-token			# 查看各 Token 关联的 Secret

在这里插入图片描述

[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    scp kubelet-bootstrap-${all_name}.kubeconfig root@${all_name}:/etc/kubernetes/kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig
  done

创建 Kubelet 参数配置文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > kubelet-config.yaml.template << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: "##ALL_IP##"
staticPodPath: ""
syncFrequency: 1m
fileCheckFrequency: 20s
httpCheckFrequency: 20s
staticPodURL: ""
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 0
rotateCertificates: true
serverTLSBootstrap: true
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: "/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem"
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
registryPullQPS: 0
registryBurst: 20
eventRecordQPS: 0
eventBurst: 20
enableDebuggingHandlers: true
enableContentionProfiling: true
healthzPort: 10248
healthzBindAddress: "##ALL_IP##"
clusterDomain: "${CLUSTER_DNS_DOMAIN}"
clusterDNS:
  - "${CLUSTER_DNS_SVC_IP}"
nodeStatusUpdateFrequency: 10s
nodeStatusReportFrequency: 1m
imageMinimumGCAge: 2m
imageGCHighThresholdPercent: 85
imageGCLowThresholdPercent: 80
volumeStatsAggPeriod: 1m
kubeletCgroups: ""
systemCgroups: ""
cgroupRoot: ""
cgroupsPerQOS: true
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
runtimeRequestTimeout: 10m
hairpinMode: promiscuous-bridge
maxPods: 220
podCIDR: "${CLUSTER_CIDR}"
podPidsLimit: -1
resolvConf: /etc/resolv.conf
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
kubeAPIQPS: 1000
kubeAPIBurst: 2000
serializeImagePulls: false
evictionHard:
  memory.available:  "100Mi"
nodefs.available:  "10%"
nodefs.inodesFree: "5%"
imagefs.available: "15%"
evictionSoft: {}
enableControllerAttachDetach: true
failSwapOn: true
containerLogMaxSize: 20Mi
containerLogMaxFiles: 10
systemReserved: {}
kubeReserved: {}
systemReservedCgroup: ""
kubeReservedCgroup: ""
enforceNodeAllocatable: ["pods"]
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    sed -e "s/##ALL_IP##/${all_ip}/" kubelet-config.yaml.template > kubelet-config-${all_ip}.yaml.template
    scp kubelet-config-${all_ip}.yaml.template root@${all_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/kubelet-config.yaml
  done

1)创建 Kubelet 启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > kubelet.service.template << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=docker.service
Requires=docker.service

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=${K8S_DIR}/kubelet
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/kubelet 
  --bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet-bootstrap.kubeconfig 
  --cert-dir=/etc/kubernetes/cert 
  --cgroup-driver=cgroupfs 
  --cni-conf-dir=/etc/cni/net.d 
  --container-runtime=docker 
  --container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///var/run/dockershim.sock 
  --root-dir=${K8S_DIR}/kubelet 
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig 
  --config=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet-config.yaml 
  --hostname-override=##ALL_NAME## 
  --pod-infra-container-image=registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause-amd64:3.2 
  --image-pull-progress-deadline=15m 
  --volume-plugin-dir=${K8S_DIR}/kubelet/kubelet-plugins/volume/exec/ 
  --logtostderr=true 
  --v=2
Restart=always
RestartSec=5
StartLimitInterval=0

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    sed -e "s/##ALL_NAME##/${all_name}/" kubelet.service.template > kubelet-${all_name}.service
    scp kubelet-${all_name}.service root@${all_name}:/etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service
  done

2)启动并验证

授权

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap --clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper --group=system:bootstrappers

启动 Kubelet

[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    ssh root@${all_name} "mkdir -p ${K8S_DIR}/kubelet/kubelet-plugins/volume/exec/"
    ssh root@${all_name} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kubelet --now"
  done

查看 Kubelet 服务

[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    ssh root@${all_name} "systemctl status kubelet | grep active"
  done
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get csr									# 因为我们还没做认证. 所以显示 Pengding 状态

在这里插入图片描述

3)Approve CSR 请求

自动 Approve CSR 请求(创建三个 ClusterRoleBinding,分别用于自动 approve client renew client renew server 证书)

[[email protected] work]# cat > csr-crb.yaml << EOF
 # Approve all CSRs for the group "system:bootstrappers"
 kind: ClusterRoleBinding
 apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
 metadata:
   name: auto-approve-csrs-for-group
 subjects:
 - kind: Group
   name: system:bootstrappers
   apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
 roleRef:
   kind: ClusterRole
   name: system:certificates.k8s.io:certificatesigningrequests:nodeclient
   apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
---
 # To let a node of the group "system:nodes" renew its own credentials
 kind: ClusterRoleBinding
 apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
 metadata:
   name: node-client-cert-renewal
 subjects:
 - kind: Group
   name: system:nodes
   apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
 roleRef:
   kind: ClusterRole
   name: system:certificates.k8s.io:certificatesigningrequests:selfnodeclient
   apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
---
# A ClusterRole which instructs the CSR approver to approve a node requesting a
# serving cert matching its client cert.
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: approve-node-server-renewal-csr
rules:
- apiGroups: ["certificates.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["certificatesigningrequests/selfnodeserver"]
  verbs: ["create"]
---
 # To let a node of the group "system:nodes" renew its own server credentials
 kind: ClusterRoleBinding
 apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
 metadata:
   name: node-server-cert-renewal
 subjects:
 - kind: Group
   name: system:nodes
   apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
 roleRef:
   kind: ClusterRole
   name: approve-node-server-renewal-csr
   apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
EOF
[[email protected] work]# kubectl apply -f csr-crb.yaml

验证(等待一段时间 1 ~ 5 分钟),三个节点的 CSR 都自动 approved

[[email protected] work]# kubectl get csr | grep boot				# 等待一段时间 (1-10 分钟),三个节点的 CSR 都自动 approved
[[email protected] work]# kubectl get nodes							# 所有节点均 Ready

在这里插入图片描述

[[email protected] ~]# ls -l /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig
[[email protected] ~]# ls -l /etc/kubernetes/cert/ | grep kubelet

在这里插入图片描述

4)手动 Approve Server Cert Csr

基于安全性考虑,CSR approving controllers 不会自动 approve kubelet server 证书签名请求,需要手动 approve

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get csr | grep node

在这里插入图片描述

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl get csr | grep Pending | awk '{print $1}' | xargs kubectl certificate approve
[[email protected] ~]# ls -l /etc/kubernetes/cert/kubelet-*

在这里插入图片描述

5)Kubelet API 接口配置

Kubelet API 认证和授权

[[email protected] ~]# curl -s --cacert /etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem https://192.168.1.1:10250/metrics
[[email protected] ~]# curl -s --cacert /etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem -H "Authorization: Bearer 123456" https://192.168.1.1:10250/metrics

在这里插入图片描述
证书认证和授权

// 默认权限不足
[[email protected] ~]# curl -s --cacert /etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem --cert /etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-controller-manager.pem --key /etc/kubernetes/cert/kube-controller-manager-key.pem https://192.168.1.1:10250/metrics
// 使用最高权限的 admin
[[email protected] ~]# curl -s --cacert /etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem --cert /opt/k8s/work/admin.pem --key /opt/k8s/work/admin-key.pem https://192.168.1.1:10250/metrics | head

创建 Bear Token 认证和授权

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl create serviceaccount kubelet-api-test
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-api-test --clusterrole=system:kubelet-api-admin --serviceaccount=default:kubelet-api-test
[[email protected] ~]# SECRET=$(kubectl get secrets | grep kubelet-api-test | awk '{print $1}')
[[email protected] ~]# TOKEN=$(kubectl describe secret ${SECRET} | grep -E '^token' | awk '{print $2}')
[[email protected] ~]# echo ${TOKEN}
[[email protected] ~]# curl -s --cacert /etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem -H "Authorization: Bearer ${TOKEN}" https://192.168.1.1:10250/metrics | head

5.安装 Kube-Proxy 组件

Kube-Proxy 运行在所有主机上,用来监听 APIServer 中的 Service 和 Endpoint 的变化情况,并创建路由规则来提供服务 IP 和负载均衡功能。

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp kubernetes/server/bin/kube-proxy root@${all_ip}:/opt/k8s/bin/
    ssh root@${all_ip} "chmod +x /opt/k8s/bin/*"
  done

1)创建 Kube-Proxy 证书和密钥

创建 Kube-Proxy 的 CA 证书请求文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Shanghai",
      "L": "Shanghai",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

2)生成证书和密钥

[[email protected] work]# cfssl gencert -ca=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem -ca-key=/opt/k8s/work/ca-key.pem -config=/opt/k8s/work/ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy

3)创建 Kubeconfig 文件

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes 
  --certificate-authority=/opt/k8s/work/ca.pem 
  --embed-certs=true 
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} 
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy 
  --client-certificate=kube-proxy.pem 
  --client-key=kube-proxy-key.pem 
  --embed-certs=true 
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config set-context default 
  --cluster=kubernetes 
  --user=kube-proxy 
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

[[email protected] work]# kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    scp kube-proxy.kubeconfig root@${all_ip}:/etc/kubernetes/
  done

4)创建 Kube-Proxy 配置文件

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-proxy-config.yaml.template << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
clientConnection:
  burst: 200
  kubeconfig: "/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig"
  qps: 100
bindAddress: ##ALL_IP##
healthzBindAddress: ##ALL_IP##:10256
metricsBindAddress: ##ALL_IP##:10249
enableProfiling: true
clusterCIDR: ${CLUSTER_CIDR}
hostnameOverride: ##ALL_NAME##
mode: "ipvs"
portRange: ""
kubeProxyIPTablesConfiguration:
  masqueradeAll: false
kubeProxyIPVSConfiguration:
  scheduler: rr
  excludeCIDRs: []
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for (( i=0; i < 3; i++ ))
  do
    echo ">>> ${ALL_NAMES[i]}"
    sed -e "s/##ALL_NAME##/${ALL_NAMES[i]}/" -e "s/##ALL_IP##/${ALL_IPS[i]}/" kube-proxy-config.yaml.template > kube-proxy-config-${ALL_NAMES[i]}.yaml.template
    scp kube-proxy-config-${ALL_NAMES[i]}.yaml.template root@${ALL_NAMES[i]}:/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy-config.yaml
  done

4)创建启动脚本

[[email protected] work]# cat > kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kube-Proxy Server
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=${K8S_DIR}/kube-proxy
ExecStart=/opt/k8s/bin/kube-proxy 
  --config=/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy-config.yaml 
  --logtostderr=true 
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    scp kube-proxy.service root@${all_name}:/etc/systemd/system/
  done

5)启动并验证

[[email protected] work]# for all_ip in ${ALL_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_ip}"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "mkdir -p ${K8S_DIR}/kube-proxy"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "modprobe ip_vs_rr"
    ssh root@${all_ip} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl enable kube-proxy --now"
  done

查看 ipvs 路由规则

[[email protected] work]# ipvsadm -ln

在这里插入图片描述
问题: 当我们在启动 kube-proxy 组件后,通过 systemctl 查看该组件状态时,出现如下错误

Not using `--random-fully` in the MASQUERADE rule for iptables because the local version of iptables does not support it

上面报错是因为我们的 iptables 版本不支持 --random-fully 配置(1.6.2 版本上支持),所以我们需要对 iptables 进行升级操作。

[[email protected] work]# wget https://www.netfilter.org/projects/iptables/files/iptables-1.6.2.tar.bz2 --no-check-certificate
[[email protected] work]# for all_name in ${ALL_NAMES[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${all_name}"
    scp iptables-1.6.2.tar.bz2 root@${all_name}:/root/
    ssh root@${all_name} "yum -y install gcc make libnftnl-devel libmnl-devel autoconf automake libtool bison flex libnetfilter_conntrack-devel libnetfilter_queue-devel libpcap-devel bzip2"
    ssh root@${all_name} "export LC_ALL=C && tar -xf iptables-1.6.2.tar.bz2 && cd iptables-1.6.2 && ./autogen.sh && ./configure && make && make install"
    ssh root@${all_name} "systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl restart kubelet && systemctl restart kube-proxy"
  done

6.安装 CoreDNS 插件

1)修改 Coredns 配置

[[email protected] ~]# cd /opt/k8s/work/kubernetes/cluster/addons/dns/coredns
[[email protected] coredns]# cp coredns.yaml.base coredns.yaml
[[email protected] coredns]# sed -i -e "s/__PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__/${CLUSTER_DNS_DOMAIN}/" -e "s/__PILLAR__DNS__SERVER__/${CLUSTER_DNS_SVC_IP}/" -e "s/__PILLAR__DNS__MEMORY__LIMIT__/200Mi/" coredns.yaml

2)创建 Coredns 并启动

配置调度策略

[[email protected] coredns]# kubectl label nodes k8s-master01 node-role.kubernetes.io/master=true
[[email protected] coredns]# kubectl label nodes k8s-master02 node-role.kubernetes.io/master=true
[[email protected] coredns]# vim coredns.yaml
......
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
......
spec:
  replicas: 2															# 配置成两个副本
......
      tolerations:
        - key: "node-role.kubernetes.io/master"
          operator: "Equal"
          value: ""
          effect: NoSchedule
      nodeSelector:
        node-role.kubernetes.io/master: "true"
......
[[email protected] coredns]# kubectl create -f coredns.yaml

在这里插入图片描述

kubectl describe pod Pod-Name -n kube-system											# Pod-Name 你们需要换成自己的

因为上面镜像使用的是 K8s 官方的镜像(国外),所以可能会出现:

Normal   BackOff    72s (x6 over 3m47s)   kubelet, k8s-master01  Back-off pulling image "k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.6.5"
Warning  Failed     57s (x7 over 3m47s)   kubelet, k8s-master01  Error: ImagePullBackOff
  • 出现如上问题后,我们可以通过拉取其它仓库中的镜像,拉取完后重新打个标签即可。
如:docker pull k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.6.5

我们可以:
docker pull registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:1.6.5
docker tag registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:1.6.5 k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.6.5

3)验证

[[email protected] coredns]# kubectl run -it --rm test-dns --image=busybox:1.28.4 sh
If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
/ # 
/ # nslookup kubernetes
Server:    10.20.0.254
Address 1: 10.20.0.254 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name:      kubernetes
Address 1: 10.20.0.1 kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local

7.安装 Dashboard 仪表盘

[[email protected] coredns]# cd /opt/k8s/work/
[[email protected] work]# mkdir metrics
[[email protected] work]# cd metrics/
[[email protected] metrics]# wget https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/metrics-server/releases/download/v0.3.6/components.yaml
[[email protected] metrics]# vim components.yaml
......
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
spec:
  replicas: 2												# 修改副本数
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: metrics-server
  template:
    metadata:
      name: metrics-server
      labels:
        k8s-app: metrics-server
    spec:
      hostNetwork: true										# 配置主机网络
      serviceAccountName: metrics-server
      volumes:
      # mount in tmp so we can safely use from-scratch images and/or read-only containers
      - name: tmp-dir
        emptyDir: {}
      containers:
      - name: metrics-server
        image: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.3.6		# 修改镜像名
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        args:
          - --cert-dir=/tmp
          - --secure-port=4443
          - --kubelet-insecure-tls							# 新加的
          - --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP,Hostname,InternalDNS,ExternalDNS,ExternalIP	# 新加的
......
[[email protected] metrics]# kubectl create -f components.yaml 

验证:
在这里插入图片描述

1)创建证书

[[email protected] metrics]# cd /opt/k8s/work/
[[email protected] work]# mkdir -p /opt/k8s/work/dashboard/certs
[[email protected] work]# openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout tls.key -out tls.crt -subj "/C=CN/ST=ZheJiang/L=HangZhou/O=Xianghy/OU=Xianghy/CN=k8s.odocker.com"
[[email protected] work]# for master_ip in ${MASTER_IPS[@]}
  do
    echo ">>> ${master_ip}"
    ssh root@${master_ip} "mkdir -p /opt/k8s/work/dashboard/certs" 
    scp tls.* root@${master_ip}:/opt/k8s/work/dashboard/certs/
  done

2)修改 Dashboard 配置

手动创建 Secret

[[email protected] ~]# kubectl create namespace kubernetes-dashboard
[[email protected] ~]# kubectl create secret generic kubernetes-dashboard-certs --from-file=/opt/k8s/work/dashboard/certs -n kubernetes-dashboard

修改 Dashboard 配置(你们可以通过这个地址来看 Dashboard 的 yaml 文件:传送门

[[email protected] work]# cd dashboard/
[[email protected] dashboard]# vim dashboard.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30080
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-csrf
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque
data:
  csrf: ""
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque
---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-settings
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
---
kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["secrets"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder", "kubernetes-dashboard-certs", "kubernetes-dashboard-csrf"]
    verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["configmaps"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
    verbs: ["get", "update"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["proxy"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services/proxy"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "http:heapster:", "https:heapster:", "dashboard-metrics-scraper", "http:dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["get"]
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Metrics Scraper to get metrics from the Metrics server
  - apiGroups: ["metrics.k8s.io"]
    resources: ["pods", "nodes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
---
kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard
          image: kubernetesui/dashboard:v2.0.0-beta8
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8443
              protocol: TCP
          args:
            - --auto-generate-certificates
            - --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard
            - --tls-key-file=tls.key
            - --tls-cert-file=tls.crt
            - --token-ttl=3600
          volumeMounts:
            - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
              mountPath: /certs
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTPS
              path: /
              port: 8443
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      volumes:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          secret:
            secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "beta.kubernetes.io/os": linux
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule
---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 8000
      targetPort: 8000
  selector:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
---
kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
      annotations:
        seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/pod: 'runtime/default'
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
          image: kubernetesui/metrics-scraper:v1.0.1
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8000
              protocol: TCP
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTP
              path: /
              port: 8000
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          volumeMounts:
          - mountPath: /tmp
            name: tmp-volume
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "beta.kubernetes.io/os": linux
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule
      volumes:
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl create -f dashboard.yaml          

创建管理员账户

[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl create serviceaccount admin-user -n kubernetes-dashboard
[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding admin-user --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kubernetes-dashboard:admin-user

3)验证

获取登录令牌

[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard describe secret $(kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get secret | grep admin-user | awk '{print $1}')

在这里插入图片描述
访问:https://192.168.1.1:30080
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
到此,我们的 Kubernetes 便搭建完成了,如果你们在安装中出现问题,可以通过下面的推广信息来联系博主共同探讨。

本图文内容来源于网友网络收集整理提供,作为学习参考使用,版权属于原作者。
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