N1CTF20221 Collision exp解析write up

N1CTF2021 Collision exp解析write up

Collision
本人并没有在n1ctf2021中做出这道题,本文的最终exp是根据出题人提供的exp修改得到的。我将在本文中分享我的做这道题的经历以及解题exp的分析
原始exp链接:
https://github.com/Nu1LCTF/n1ctf-2021/blob/main/Misc/collision/exp.py
题面描述如下:

在这里插入图片描述

附件链接如下:

链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1tYfzP7YOiB8UEGwDYdMNbg
提取码:7zgc

里面包含了一个代码和一个模型的参数,代码如下

import base64

import numpy as np
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F


class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(1, 32, 3, 1)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(32, 64, 3, 1)
        self.dropout1 = nn.Dropout(0.25)
        self.dropout2 = nn.Dropout(0.5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(9216, 128)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(128, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = self.conv2(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
        x = self.dropout1(x)
        x = torch.flatten(x, 1)
        x = self.fc1(x)
        return x


def load_model(path):
    model = Net()
    model.load_state_dict(torch.load(path, map_location="cpu"))
    return model.eval()


model = load_model("convNet.pt")


def hex_hash(hash_bits):
    x = hash_bits.detach().numpy()
    res = [str(int(i > 0)) for i in x[0]]
    return hex(int(''.join(res), 2))


L0_THRES = 54.1
L2_THRES = 6.45
src = np.frombuffer(base64.b64decode(
    'AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA5eTkPgAAgD/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOPiYj8AAIA/5eRkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOno6D0AAIA/5eTkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADl5OQ+AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAx8ZGPwAAgD/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA6ejoPQAAgD/j4mI/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAI6NDT8AAIA/jo0NPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOXkZD6trKw+raysPo6NDT/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOXkZD7j4mI/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAP+XkZD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAPwAAgD/l5OQ+5eRkPuPiYj/HxkY/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/raysPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADl5GQ+AACAPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAjo0NPwAAgD/l5OQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA6ejoPQAAgD/HxkY/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/raysPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOno6D0AAIA/AACAPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/5eTkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADHxkY/4+JiPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAx8ZGPwAAgD/l5OQ+AAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAACtrKw+AACAP+Xk5D4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAK2srD4AAIA/AACAP6uqKj/l5GQ+AACAPwAAgD/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAACtrKw+4+JiP+PiYj/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA5eTkPuPiYj8AAIA/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/raysPq2srD6rqio/AACAPwAAgD/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADp6Og9jo0NPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAP8fGRj/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA4+JiPwAAgD8AAIA/jo0NP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAI6NDT8AAIA/AACAP6uqKj+rqio/5eRkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAjo0NP+PiYj+rqio/5eTkPuno6D0AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=='),
                    dtype="float32")


def hash_buf(buf):
    global src
    arr = np.frombuffer(buf, dtype="float32")
    if arr.shape[0] != 28 * 28:
        raise BufferError("hacker")
    arr = np.clip(arr, 0, 1)
    diff = arr - src
    #print(np.linalg.norm(diff, 0), np.linalg.norm(diff, 2))
    if np.linalg.norm(diff, 0) > L0_THRES or np.linalg.norm(diff, 2) > L2_THRES:
        raise BufferError("attack failed")
    arr = torch.FloatTensor(arr).reshape(1, 1, 28, 28)
    # need=0x1046822029745355ca048937f624fb87
    # hash(src)=0x91460a702d62d166a9942cb7fc10d7a2
    return hex_hash(model(arr))

让我们分析代码,首先给出了一个CNN模型Net

class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(1, 32, 3, 1)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(32, 64, 3, 1)
        self.dropout1 = nn.Dropout(0.25)
        self.dropout2 = nn.Dropout(0.5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(9216, 128)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(128, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = self.conv2(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
        x = self.dropout1(x)
        x = torch.flatten(x, 1)
        x = self.fc1(x)
        return x

然后load_model函数负责载入已有的convNet.pt模型参数

def load_model(path):
    model = Net()
    model.load_state_dict(torch.load(path, map_location="cpu"))
    return model.eval()


model = load_model("convNet.pt")

hex_hash函数用于生成hash值,其具体方法是将给定的numpy数组的值映射为0和1,当数组元素小于等于0则这一位对应的hash值为0反之为1。

def hex_hash(hash_bits):
    x = hash_bits.detach().numpy()
    res = [str(int(i > 0)) for i in x[0]]
    return hex(int(''.join(res), 2))

接下来给定了图像攻击题目中常见的l0和l2范数约束,以及作为对照的图片的base64的值

L0_THRES = 54.1
L2_THRES = 6.45
src = np.frombuffer(base64.b64decode(
    'AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA5eTkPgAAgD/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOPiYj8AAIA/5eRkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOno6D0AAIA/5eTkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADl5OQ+AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAx8ZGPwAAgD/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA6ejoPQAAgD/j4mI/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAI6NDT8AAIA/jo0NPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOXkZD6trKw+raysPo6NDT/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOXkZD7j4mI/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAP+XkZD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAPwAAgD/l5OQ+5eRkPuPiYj/HxkY/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/raysPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADl5GQ+AACAPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAjo0NPwAAgD/l5OQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA6ejoPQAAgD/HxkY/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/raysPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOno6D0AAIA/AACAPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/5eTkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADHxkY/4+JiPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAx8ZGPwAAgD/l5OQ+AAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAACtrKw+AACAP+Xk5D4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAK2srD4AAIA/AACAP6uqKj/l5GQ+AACAPwAAgD/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAACtrKw+4+JiP+PiYj/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA5eTkPuPiYj8AAIA/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/raysPq2srD6rqio/AACAPwAAgD/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADp6Og9jo0NPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAP8fGRj/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA4+JiPwAAgD8AAIA/jo0NP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAI6NDT8AAIA/AACAP6uqKj+rqio/5eRkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAjo0NP+PiYj+rqio/5eTkPuno6D0AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=='),
                    dtype="float32")

这张图dump出来我们可以发现是下图mnist数据集中的4,这提示了我们训练模型所使用的数据集,这张图在之后的训练中还会用到
在这里插入图片描述
同时也解释了为什么模型最后输出层单元数为10,因为这出题时是一个十分类任务
在这里插入图片描述
最后则是本题的核心函数hash_buf,这个函数做了这些事情:首先它会接收来自选手发送的图片的base64解码后的比特流,然后将其转换为numpy float32数组,然后判断大小是否为28*28(mnist数据集每张图片都是单通道28x28大小),然后将图像像素值强制约束到[0,1],也就是如果像素值小于0则会变成0,大于1变成1,其他不变。

global src
    arr = np.frombuffer(buf, dtype="float32")
    if arr.shape[0] != 28 * 28:
        raise BufferError("hacker")
    arr = np.clip(arr, 0, 1)

然后求出选手发送的图像与src的差值,求出l0和l2,如果不满足要求则失败,若满足要求,将发送的图像送入网络,取出倒数第二层的特征值数组转换为numpy后求hash值,如果为need的值,也就是need=0x1046822029745355ca048937f624fb87,则可以拿到flag

diff = arr - src
    #print(np.linalg.norm(diff, 0), np.linalg.norm(diff, 2))
    if np.linalg.norm(diff, 0) > L0_THRES or np.linalg.norm(diff, 2) > L2_THRES:
        raise BufferError("attack failed")
    arr = torch.FloatTensor(arr).reshape(1, 1, 28, 28)
    # need=0x1046822029745355ca048937f624fb87
    # hash(src)=0x91460a702d62d166a9942cb7fc10d7a2
    return hex_hash(model(arr))

总的来说,为了解开这题,我们需要生成一张hash值(卷积得到的特征值)为0x1046822029745355ca048937f624fb87且和原图差别不大(满足给定的l0和l2约束)的攻击图片

首先给出完整的exp的攻击部分,来自出题人

model = load_model("./model/convNet.pt")
target_image=torch.FloatTensor(np.load("mnist.npz")['test_images'][8583]).reshape(1,1,28,28)
target_out = model(target_image).detach()
target_nsgn=-torch.sign(target_out).detach()
image = torch.FloatTensor(np.load("mnist.npz")['test_images'][22]).reshape(1,1,28,28)#这个就是src
adv=Variable(image,requires_grad=True)
loss_f=nn.L1Loss()
loss_l2=nn.MSELoss()
def attack():
    global adv
    max_sim = 0
    cnt = 0
    loss_cnt = 0
    losses = []
    lr=0.1
    RATIO=10
    itercnt=0
    best = 9999
    best_l0 = 9999
    best_l2 = 9999
    save_image(image.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'origion.tiff')
    save_image(target_image.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'target.tiff')
    for i in range(10000):
        adv_out=model(adv)
        l1l=loss_f(adv,image)*RATIO
        hashl=torch.sum(F.relu(target_nsgn*adv_out))
        l2l=loss_l2(adv,image)
        loss=l1l+hashl
        loss.backward()
        adv.requires_grad=False
        if hex_hash(adv_out)==hex_hash(target_out) and torch.sum(adv!=image).numpy() == 54 and l2l < 0.053:
            break
        adv=adv-adv.grad*lr
        adv=adv.clamp(0,1)
        if hex_hash(adv_out)==hex_hash(target_out):
            best=min(best,torch.sum(torch.abs(adv-image)>0.005).numpy())
            best_l0=min(best_l0,torch.sum(adv!=image).numpy())
            best_l2 = min(best_l2, l2l)
            itercnt+=1
            mask=(torch.abs(adv-image)<np.clip(0.02+0.04*itercnt,0.02,0.4)).type(torch.FloatTensor)
            adv=adv*(1-mask)+image*mask
        adv.requires_grad = True
    save_image(adv.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'collision_pic.tiff')

首先可以看出这个攻击代码的主体算法是FGSM
在这里插入图片描述
FGSM在这里起到使得虚假图像的hash和目标hash更加相似的作用:这是因为我们的图像梯度是通过计算target_nsgn(目标特征层,这里将其设置为小于等于0时为-1和大于0为1)和我们的攻击图像的adv_out得到的,使用fgsm就可以使得图像在梯度上沿着使得俩特征层hash值相同的方向移动,因此最终可以使得攻击图像的hash值和目标hash相同。以上就是FGSM在本题中work的原因
在这里插入图片描述
我认为exp中对于hash值的损失函数的设计是本exp的一大亮点,不过需要提醒的是,这种hash_loss不是万能的,使用不同网络可能需要重新设计loss。在这里做着将俩hash相乘,其中一个hash意见事先乘以-1,在使用激活函数relu筛去符号相同的位后求和。因为损失函数为0是,攻击图像的hash值和目标hash值每一位正负号完全相同,所以这个损失函数可以有效地使得攻击图像的hash值朝着目标hash移动
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
解决了hash相同的问题,接下来让我们再看一看如何解决l0和l2的问题。我们可以这样来理解l0和l2:l0起到约束我们改变多少像素的作用而l2则起到约束我们两张图相似性的作用。因此我们可以使用l1损失函数nn.L1Loss()来对l0进行约束(这是因为numpy计算l0范数是sum(x!=0)),使用nn.MSEloss()对l2进行约束。
在这里插入图片描述
实际调参时发现只需要关注l1损失,再添加l2损失反而l0和l2都无法达到要求。然后为了更加方便地满足l0和l2约束,我们将初始攻击图像设置为src,也就是之前被base64编码的图片
在这里插入图片描述
当然仅仅有损失函数的约束还不够,损失函数是一种偏软的约束,它虽然可以达到hash值相同的结果,但是由于其作用范围和FGSM都是在整个图像上进行的,则往往生成的攻击图像与对比图像在很多像素值上有细小的区别,这将导致难以通过较硬的l0约束
在这里插入图片描述
因此出题人使用了一种启发式的硬mask来解决这个问题,具体mask生成方式如下:
在这里插入图片描述
在hash值可以相等的前提下,这个mask将会筛去攻击图像中和对比图像差值小于阈值sita=np.clip(0.02+0.04*itercnt,0.02,0.4))的像素并将其替代为对比图像的像素值以便减小l0的值。启发式体现在,mask的sita阈值随着迭代次数的增加不断变大,最终不大于0.4,这将鼓励攻击图像生成数量更少但是对于hash值影响更大的像素,从而降低l0和l2

最终生成的攻击图像如下:
在这里插入图片描述
得到flag如下:
在这里插入图片描述
完整攻击脚本如下:

import numpy as np
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch.autograd import Variable
from pwn import *
from PIL import Image
import hashlib
import string

class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(1, 32, 3, 1)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(32, 64, 3, 1)
        self.dropout1 = nn.Dropout(0.25)
        self.dropout2 = nn.Dropout(0.5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(9216, 128)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(128, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = self.conv2(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
        x = self.dropout1(x)
        x = torch.flatten(x, 1)
        x = self.fc1(x)
        return x

def load_model(path):
    model = Net()
    model.load_state_dict(torch.load(path, map_location="cpu"))
    return model.eval()

def save_image(arr, path):
    im = Image.fromarray(arr)
    im.save(path)

def get_hash_sim(adv_hash, std_hash):
    cnt = 0
    for i in range(len(adv_hash[0])):
        tmp1 = adv_hash[0][i] > 0
        tmp2 = std_hash[0][i] > 0
        if tmp1 != tmp2:
            cnt += 1
    return 1 - (cnt / len(adv_hash[0]))

def cal_hash_bits(out):
    return out

def hex_hash(hash_bits):
    x = hash_bits.detach().numpy()
    res = [str(int(i > 0)) for i in x[0]]
    return hex(int(''.join(res), 2))
model = load_model("./model/convNet.pt")
target_image=torch.FloatTensor(np.load("mnist.npz")['test_images'][8583]).reshape(1,1,28,28)
target_out = model(target_image).detach()
target_nsgn=-torch.sign(target_out).detach()
image = torch.FloatTensor(np.load("mnist.npz")['test_images'][22]).reshape(1,1,28,28)
adv=Variable(image,requires_grad=True)

loss_f=nn.L1Loss()
loss_l2=nn.MSELoss()

def hex_hash(hash_bits):
    x = hash_bits.detach().numpy()
    res = [str(int(i > 0)) for i in x[0]]
    return hex(int(''.join(res), 2))


L0_THRES = 54.1
L2_THRES = 6.45
src = np.frombuffer(base64.b64decode(
    'AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA5eTkPgAAgD/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOPiYj8AAIA/5eRkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOno6D0AAIA/5eTkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADl5OQ+AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAx8ZGPwAAgD/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA6ejoPQAAgD/j4mI/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAI6NDT8AAIA/jo0NPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOXkZD6trKw+raysPo6NDT/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOXkZD7j4mI/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAP+XkZD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAPwAAgD/l5OQ+5eRkPuPiYj/HxkY/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/raysPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADl5GQ+AACAPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAq6oqPwAAgD+trKw+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAjo0NPwAAgD/l5OQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA6ejoPQAAgD/HxkY/AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/raysPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAOno6D0AAIA/AACAPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKuqKj8AAIA/5eTkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADHxkY/4+JiPwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAx8ZGPwAAgD/l5OQ+AAAAAAAAAACrqio/AACAP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAACtrKw+AACAP+Xk5D4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAK2srD4AAIA/AACAP6uqKj/l5GQ+AACAPwAAgD/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAACtrKw+4+JiP+PiYj/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA5eTkPuPiYj8AAIA/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/raysPq2srD6rqio/AACAPwAAgD/l5GQ+AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADp6Og9jo0NPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAPwAAgD8AAIA/AACAP8fGRj/p6Og9AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA4+JiPwAAgD8AAIA/jo0NP62srD4AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAI6NDT8AAIA/AACAP6uqKj+rqio/5eRkPgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAjo0NP+PiYj+rqio/5eTkPuno6D0AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=='),
                    dtype="float32")


def hash_buf(buf):
    global src
    arr = np.frombuffer(buf, dtype="float32")
    if arr.shape[0] != 28 * 28:
        raise BufferError("hacker")
    arr = np.clip(arr, 0, 1)
    diff = arr - src
    print(np.linalg.norm(diff, 0), np.linalg.norm(diff, 2))
    if np.linalg.norm(diff, 0) > L0_THRES or np.linalg.norm(diff, 2) > L2_THRES:
        raise BufferError("attack failed")
    arr = torch.FloatTensor(arr).reshape(1, 1, 28, 28)
    # need=0x1046822029745355ca048937f624fb87
    # hash(src)=0x91460a702d62d166a9942cb7fc10d7a2
    return hex_hash(model(arr))

def getsha256(s):
    sha256=hashlib.sha256()
    sha256.update(str(s).encode('utf-8'))
    ans=sha256.hexdigest()
    return ans

def attack():
    global adv
    # load model, seed, image
    max_sim = 0
    cnt = 0
    loss_cnt = 0
    losses = []
    lr=0.1
    RATIO=10
    itercnt=0
    best = 9999
    best_l0 = 9999
    best_l2 = 9999
    save_image(image.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'origion.tiff')
    save_image(target_image.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'target.tiff')
    for i in range(10000):
        adv_out=model(adv)
        l1l=loss_f(adv,image)*RATIO
        hashl=torch.sum(F.relu(target_nsgn*adv_out))
        l2l=loss_l2(adv,image)
        loss=l1l+hashl
        loss.backward()
        adv.requires_grad=False
        data1 = adv.squeeze().detach().numpy().astype("float32").tobytes()
        arr1 = np.frombuffer(data1, dtype="float32")
        arr1 = np.clip(arr1, 0, 1)
        diff = arr1 - src
        a,b=(np.linalg.norm(diff, 0), np.linalg.norm(diff, 2))
        if hex_hash(adv_out)==hex_hash(target_out) and a< L0_THRES and b < L2_THRES:
            save_image(adv.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'collision_pic.tiff')
            data = adv.squeeze().detach().numpy().astype("float32").tobytes()
            print(hash_buf(data))
            r = remote("175.27.158.159", "59101")
            context(log_level='debug')
            tmpstr = r.recvline().decode().replace('n', '')
            sha_ans = tmpstr[45:109]
            sha_str = tmpstr[12:40]
            print(sha_str)
            print(sha_ans)
            print(tmpstr)
            prefix = ''
            flag = False
            ss = string.ascii_letters
            for i in ss:
                if (flag):
                    break
                for j in ss:
                    if (flag):
                        break
                    for k in ss:
                        if (flag):
                            break
                        for l in ss:
                            xxxx = i + j + k + l
                            if (sha_ans == getsha256(xxxx + sha_str)):
                                prefix = xxxx
                                print('in')
                                flag = True
                                break
            print(prefix)
            r.recvline()
            r.sendline(prefix)
            tt = r.recvline().decode().replace('n', '')
            print(tt)
            r.sendline(base64.b64encode(data))
            r.interactive()
            exit(0)
        adv=adv-adv.grad*lr
        adv=adv.clamp(0,1)
        update = f"Iteration #{i}: l1={l1l} l2loss={l2l} hashloss={hashl}"
        print(update)
        print(hex_hash(adv_out))
        print(hex_hash(target_out))
        print("diffcount",torch.sum(torch.abs(adv-image)>0.005))
        print(f"l0 loss: {torch.sum(adv!=image)}")
        print("best ", best)
        print(f"best_l0: {best_l0}")
        print(f"best_l2: {best_l2}")
        if hex_hash(adv_out)==hex_hash(target_out):
            best=min(best,torch.sum(torch.abs(adv-image)>0.005).numpy())
            best_l0=min(best_l0,torch.sum(adv!=image).numpy())
            best_l2 = min(best_l2, l2l)
            itercnt+=1
            mask=(torch.abs(adv-image)<np.clip(0.02+0.04*itercnt,0.02,0.4)).type(torch.FloatTensor)
            adv=adv*(1-mask)+image*mask
        adv.requires_grad = True
    save_image(adv.squeeze().detach().numpy(), 'collision_pic.tiff')
if __name__ == "__main__":
    attack()

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