【学生成绩管理系统—-C语言】

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一、学生成绩管理系统是什么?

       学生信息管理系统能够方便地查询和变更学生的基本数据(例如增删改查),节省大量工作时间,有效地提高学生信息管理的效率。今天要讲的是以下7个模块。

1. 学生信息输入模块。其中包括学生信息的输入和存储,同时考虑学号输入的健壮性,避免输入重复的学号。
2. 学生信息更新模块。提供对学生信息的修改和删除功能,同时也需要进行学号输入的检查,避免出现不合法的学号。
3. 成绩查询模块。可以按照学号或姓名查找学生信息,并输出学生的成绩信息。
4. 成绩统计模块。可以对所有学生的成绩按个人、按专业、按课程和按班级进行升序和降序的统计和排名,并输出成绩排名。
5. 成绩输出模块。可以按照不同的格式输出学生的成绩信息,包括按照学号、姓名、成绩等排序。
6. 系统帮助模块。提供系统使用的帮助信息,包括各个模块的使用方法和注意事项。
7. 退出系统模块。可以在任何时候退出系统。

二、信息管理的七个模块

1.Step one

数据结构设计:

在实现该系统之前,我们需要先设计一下需要用到的数据结构。我们可以定义一个结构体来表示学生的基本信息和成绩信息。

struct Student{
  char name[20];  // 学生姓名
  int stu_id;     // 学生学号
  float grade[4]; // 四门课程的成绩
};
为了实现学号的输入和检查,我们需要将学生信息存储在一个链表中,每个节点表示一个学生。

struct Student_List{
  struct Student student;
  struct Student_List *next;
};

2.Step Two 

学生信息输入模块:

我们需要设计一个函数来读入学生信息,将其存储在链表中。

void enter_new_student(struct Student_List *head)
{
  struct Student_List *new_student;
  struct Student_List *p;
  new_student = (struct Student_List *)malloc(sizeof(struct Student_List)); // 为新学生分配内存空间
  printf("n请输入新学生的姓名:");
  scanf("%s", new_student->student.name);
  printf("请输入学生学号:");
  scanf("%d", &new_student->student.stu_id);
  p = head->next;
  while(p != NULL)   // 检查学号是否重复
  {
    if(p->student.stu_id == new_student->student.stu_id)
    {
      printf("学号重复,请重新输入:");
      scanf("%d", &new_student->student.stu_id);
      p = head->next;
    }
    else{
      p = p->next;
    }
  }
  printf("请输入四门功课的成绩:");
  for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    scanf("%f", &new_student->student.grade[i]);
  }
  new_student->next = head->next;   // 把新学生插入链表头部
  head->next = new_student;
}

3.Step Three

学生信息更新模块

我们需要实现一个函数来更新学生信息。首先,我们需要输入要更新的学生的学号。如果学号存在,则将学生的基本信息和成绩信息读入,然后更新到链表中。
 

void update_student_info(struct Student_List *head)
{
  int id;
  printf("n请输入要更新的学生学号:");
  scanf("%d", &id);
  struct Student_List *p;
  p = head->next;
  while(p != NULL)   // 查找学号对应的学生
  {
    if(p->student.stu_id == id)
    {
      printf("请输入学生姓名:");
      scanf("%s", p->student.name);
      printf("请输入四门功课的成绩:");
      for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
      {
        scanf("%f", &p->student.grade[i]);
      }
      printf("学生信息已更新!n");
      return;
    }
    else{
      p = p->next;
    }
  }
  printf("没有找到该学号对应的学生!n");
}

 

4.Step four

成绩查询模块

我们需要设计一个函数,可以按照学号或姓名查找学生信息。如果查到学生信息,则输出其基本信息和成绩信息。

void search_student_info(struct Student_List *head)
{
  int choice;
  printf("n请输入查询方式(1为按学号查询,2为按姓名查询):");
  scanf("%d", &choice);

  if(choice == 1)
  {
    int id;
    printf("请输入学生学号:");
    scanf("%d", &id);
    struct Student_List *p;
    p = head->next;
    while(p != NULL)   // 查找学号对应的学生
    {
      if(p->student.stu_id == id)
      {
        printf("姓名:%s 学号:%dn", p->student.name, p->student.stu_id);
        printf("语文成绩:%f 数学成绩:%f 英语成绩:%f 物理成绩:%fn", p->student.grade[0], p->student.grade[1], p->student.grade[2], p->student.grade[3]);
        return;
      }
      else{
        p = p->next;
      }
    }
    printf("没有找到该学号对应的学生!n");
  }
  else if(choice == 2)
  {
    char name[20];
    printf("请输入学生姓名:");
    scanf("%s", name);
    struct Student_List *p;
    p = head->next;
    while(p != NULL)   // 查找姓名对应的学生
    {
      if(strcmp(p->student.name, name) == 0)
      {
        printf("姓名:%s 学号:%dn", p->student.name, p->student.stu_id);
        printf("语文成绩:%f 数学成绩:%f 英语成绩:%f 物理成绩:%fn", p->student.grade[0], p->student.grade[1], p->student.grade[2], p->student.grade[3]);
        return;
      }
      else{
        p = p->next;
      }
    }
    printf("没有找到该姓名对应的学生!n");
  }
  else{
    printf("输入有误,请重新输入!n");
    search_student_info(head);
  }
}

5.Step five

成绩统计模块

我们需要实现一个函数对所有学生的成绩按个人、按专业、按课程和按班级进行升序和降序的统计和排名,并输出成绩排名。

int cmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  int sum1 = 0, sum2 = 0;
  for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    sum1 += p1->student.grade[i];
    sum2 += p2->student.grade[i];
  }
  float avg1 = (float)sum1 / 4;
  float avg2 = (float)sum2 / 4;
  if(avg1 < avg2)
    return -1;
  else if(avg1 == avg2)
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;
}

void rank_students(struct Student_List *head)
{
  int choice, by_order;
  printf("n请选择要排序的方式(1为按平均分排序,2为按语文成绩排序,3为按数学成绩排序,4为按英语成绩排序,5为按物理成绩排序):");
  scanf("%d", &choice);
  printf("请选择排序方式(1为升序,2为降序):");
  scanf("%d", &by_order);

  int count = 1;
  struct Student_List *p;
  p = head->next;
  int nums = 0;

  // 统计学生总数
  while(p != NULL)
  {
    nums++;
    p = p->next;
  }

  // 动态分配内存
  struct Student_List **list = (struct Student_List **)malloc(nums * sizeof(struct Student_List *));
  p = head->next;
  for(int i = 0; i < nums; i++)
  {
    list[i] = p;
    p = p->next;
  }

  // 根据不同的排序方式调用快排函数
  switch(choice)
  {
    case 1:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp);
      break;
    case 2:
      break;
    case 3:
      break;
    case 4:
      break;
    case 5:
      break;
    default:
      printf("输入有误,请重新输入!n");
      rank_students(head);
  }

  // 按升序或降序输出结果
  if(by_order == 1)
  {
    printf("名次  姓名    平均分n");
    for(int i = 0; i < nums; i++)
    {
      printf("%-4d  %-6s %4.2fn", count, list[i]->student.name, average(list[i]));
      if(i == nums - 1 || average(list[i]) != average(list[i+1]))
        count++;
    }
  }
  else if(by_order == 2)
  {
    printf("名次  姓名    平均分n");
    for(int i = nums - 1; i >= 0; i--)
    {
      printf("%-4d  %-6s %4.2fn", count, list[i]->student.name, average(list[i]));
      if(i == 0 || average(list[i]) != average(list[i-1]))
        count++;
    }
  }
  else{
    printf("输入有误,请重新输入!n");
    rank_students(head);
  }

  // 释放内存
  free(list);
}

// 计算学生平均分的函数
float average(struct Student_List *p)
{
  int sum = 0;
  for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    sum += p->student.grade[i];
  }
  return (float)sum / 4;
}

 

6.Step Six

成绩输出模块

我们需要设计一个函数,可以按照不同的格式输出学生的成绩信息,包括按照学号、姓名、成绩等排序。

void print_students(struct Student_List *head)
{
  int choice;
  printf("n请选择要排序的方式(1为按学号排序,2为按姓名排序,3为按平均分排序,4为按语文成绩排序,5为按数学成绩排序,6为按英语成绩排序,7为按物理成绩排序):");
  scanf("%d", &choice);

  struct Student_List **list = (struct Student_List **)malloc(nums * sizeof(struct Student_List *));
  struct Student_List *p;
  p = head->next;

  // 构建链表节点的指针数组
  for(int i = 0; i < nums; i++)
  {
    list[i] = p;
    p = p->next;
  }

  // 根据不同的排序方式对链表节点的指针数组进行排序
  switch(choice)
  {
    case 1:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp_id);
      break;
    case 2:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp_name);
      break;
    case 3:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp);
      break;
    case 4:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp_chinese);
      break;
    case 5:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp_math);
      break;
    case 6:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp_english);
      break;
    case 7:
      qsort(list, nums, sizeof(struct Student_List *), cmp_physics);
      break;
    default:
      printf("输入有误,请重新输入!n");
      print_students(head);
  }

  // 输出排序后的结果
  printf("姓名    学号    平均分  语文  数学  英语  物理n");
  for(int i = 0; i < nums; i++)
  {
    printf("%-6s %4d    %4.2f   %4.1f  %4.1f  %4.1f  %4.1fn", 
      list[i]->student.name, list[i]->student.stu_id, average(list[i]),
      list[i]->student.grade[0], list[i]->student.grade[1], list[i]->student.grade[2], list[i]->student.grade[3]);
  }

  // 释放内存
  free(list);
}

// 对学号进行比较的函数
int cmp_id(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  if(p1->student.stu_id < p2->student.stu_id)
    return -1;
  else if(p1->student.stu_id == p2->student.stu_id)
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;
}

// 对姓名进行比较的函数
int cmp_name(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  return strcmp(p1->student.name, p2->student.name);
}

// 对语文成绩进行比较的函数
int cmp_chinese(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  if(p1->student.grade[0] > p2->student.grade[0])
    return -1;
  else if(p1->student.grade[0] == p2->student.grade[0])
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;
}

// 对数学成绩进行比较的函数
int cmp_math(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  if(p1->student.grade[1] > p2->student.grade[1])
    return -1;
  else if(p1->student.grade[1] == p2->student.grade[1])
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;
}

// 对英语成绩进行比较的函数
int cmp_english(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  if(p1->student.grade[2] > p2->student.grade[2])
    return -1;
  else if(p1->student.grade[2] == p2->student.grade[2])
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;
}

// 对物理成绩进行比较的函数
int cmp_physics(const void *a, const void *b)
{
  struct Student_List *p1 = *(struct Student_List **)a;
  struct Student_List *p2 = *(struct Student_List **)b;
  if(p1->student.grade[3] > p2->student.grade[3])
    return -1;
  else if(p1->student.grade[3] == p2->student.grade[3])
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;
}

 


7.Next

以下是完整代码,且可以运行,有需要的小伙伴可以复制下来自己运行一下噢,如果有帮助的话,请给大师我点点赞,大师在此先行谢谢C友了!

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#define MAX_STUDENTS 100
#define MAX_NAME_LEN 30
#define MAX_ID_LEN 20
#define MAX_MAJOR_LEN 50
#define MAX_COURSE_LEN 50
#define GRADE_NUM 3

struct student {
    char name[MAX_NAME_LEN];
    char id[MAX_ID_LEN];
    char major[MAX_MAJOR_LEN];
    float grades[GRADE_NUM];
};

struct student students[MAX_STUDENTS];
int num_students = 0;

void input_student_info();
void update_student_info();
void query_grades();
void report_grades();
void output_grades();
void help();
void exit_system();

int main() {
    int choice = 0;
    while (1) {
        printf("==== Student Grade Management System ====n");
        printf("1. Input Student Informationn");
        printf("2. Update Student Informationn");
        printf("3. Query Gradesn");
        printf("4. Report Gradesn");
        printf("5. Output Gradesn");
        printf("6. Helpn");
        printf("7. Exitn");
        printf("Please enter your choice (1-7):n");
        scanf("%d", &choice);
        switch (choice) {
            case 1:
                input_student_info();
                break;
            case 2:
                update_student_info();
                break;
            case 3:
                query_grades();
                break;
            case 4:
                report_grades();
                break;
            case 5:
                output_grades();
                break;
            case 6:
                help();
                break;
            case 7:
                exit_system();
                return 0;
            default:
                printf("Invalid choice!n");
                break;
        }
    }
}

void input_student_info() {
    if (num_students >= MAX_STUDENTS) {
        printf("Too many students, cannot input more!n");
        return;
    }
    struct student new_student;
    printf("Please enter the name of the student:n");
    scanf("%s", new_student.name);
    printf("Please enter the ID of the student:n");
    scanf("%s", new_student.id);
    for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
        if (strcmp(students[i].id, new_student.id) == 0) {
            printf("Duplicate ID, please input again!n");
            return;
        }
    }
    printf("Please enter the major of the student:n");
    scanf("%s", new_student.major);
    printf("Please enter the grades of the student (3 numbers separated by spaces):n");
    scanf("%f %f %f", &new_student.grades[0], &new_student.grades[1], &new_student.grades[2]);
    students[num_students++] = new_student;
    printf("Student information input successful!n");
}

void update_student_info() {
    char id[MAX_ID_LEN];
    printf("Please enter the ID of the student to be updated:n");
    scanf("%s", id);
    int found = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
        if (strcmp(students[i].id, id) == 0) {
            found = 1;
            printf("1. Update Namen");
            printf("2. Update Majorn");
            printf("3. Update Gradesn");
            printf("4. Delete Studentn");
            printf("Please enter your choice (1-4):n");
            int choice = 0;
            scanf("%d", &choice);
            switch (choice) {
                case 1:
                    printf("Please enter the new name of the student:n");
                    scanf("%s", students[i].name);
                    printf("Name updated successful!n");
                    break;
                case 2:
                    printf("Please enter the new major of the student:n");
                    scanf("%s", students[i].major);
                    printf("Major updated successful!n");
                    break;
                case 3:
                    printf("Please enter the new grades of the student (3 numbers separated by spaces):n");
                    scanf("%f %f %f", &students[i].grades[0], &students[i].grades[1], &students[i].grades[2]);
                    printf("Grades updated successful!n");
                    break;
                case 4:
                    for (int j = i + 1; j < num_students; j++) {
                        students[j - 1] = students[j];
                    }
                    num_students--;
                    printf("Student deleted successful!n");
                    break;
                default:
                    printf("Invalid choice!n");
                    break;
            }
            break;
        }
    }
    if (!found) {
        printf("Student not found!n");
    }
}

void query_grades() {
    printf("1. Query by IDn");
    printf("2. Query by Namen");
    printf("Please enter your choice (1-2):n");
    int choice = 0;
    scanf("%d", &choice);
    switch (choice) {
        case 1:
            printf("Please enter the ID of the student:n");
            char id[MAX_ID_LEN];
            scanf("%s", id);
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                if (strcmp(students[i].id, id) == 0) {
                    printf("Name: %sn", students[i].name);
                    printf("ID: %sn", students[i].id);
                    printf("Major: %sn", students[i].major);
                    printf("Grades: %.1f %.1f %.1fn", students[i].grades[0], students[i].grades[1], students[i].grades[2]);
                    return;
                }
            }
            printf("Student not found!n");
            break;
        case 2:
            printf("Please enter the name of the student:n");
            char name[MAX_NAME_LEN];
            scanf("%s", name);
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                if (strcmp(students[i].name, name) == 0) {
                    printf("Name: %sn", students[i].name);
                    printf("ID: %sn", students[i].id);
                    printf("Major: %sn", students[i].major);
                    printf("Grades: %.1f %.1f %.1fn", students[i].grades[0], students[i].grades[1], students[i].grades[2]);
                    return;
                }
            }
            printf("Student not found!n");
            break;
        default:
            printf("Invalid choice!n");
            break;
    }
}

void report_grades() {
    printf("1. By Namen");
    printf("2. By Majorn");
    printf("3. By Coursen");
    printf("4. By Classn");
    printf("Please enter your choice (1-4):n");
    int choice = 0;
    scanf("%d", &choice);
    switch (choice) {
        case 1:
            printf("Report by Name:n");
            printf("NametIDtGradestRankn");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                float avg_grade = (students[i].grades[0] + students[i].grades[1] + students[i].grades[2]) / 3;
                int rank = 1;
                for (int j = 0; j < num_students; j++) {
                    if (i != j) {
                        float other_avg_grade = (students[j].grades[0] + students[j].grades[1] + students[j].grades[2]) / 3;
                        if (other_avg_grade > avg_grade) {
                            rank++;
                        }
                    }
                }
                printf("%st%st%.1f %.1f %.1ft%dn", students[i].name, students[i].id, students[i].grades[0], students[i].grades[1], students[i].grades[2], rank);
            }
            break;
        case 2:
            printf("Report by Major:n");
            printf("MajortCounttAverage Graden");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                char *major = students[i].major;
                int count = 1;
                float total_grade = students[i].grades[0] + students[i].grades[1] + students[i].grades[2];
                for (int j = i + 1; j < num_students; j++) {
                    if (strcmp(students[j].major, major) == 0) {
                        count++;
                        total_grade += students[j].grades[0] + students[j].grades[1] + students[j].grades[2];
                    }
                }
                float avg_grade = total_grade / (count * 3);
                printf("%st%dt%.1fn", major, count, avg_grade);
                i += count - 1;
            }
            break;
        case 3: {
            printf("Please enter the course name:n");
            char course[MAX_COURSE_LEN];
            scanf("%s", course);
            printf("Report by Course (%s):n", course);
            printf("NametIDtGraden");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                printf("%st%st%.1fn", students[i].name, students[i].id, students[i].grades[choice - 1]);
            }
            break;
        }
        case 4: {
            printf("Please enter the class name:n");
            char class_name[MAX_MAJOR_LEN];
            scanf("%s", class_name);
            printf("Report by Class (%s):n", class_name);
            printf("NametIDtGradestRankn");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                if (strcmp(students[i].major, class_name) == 0) {
                    float avg_grade = (students[i].grades[0] + students[i].grades[1] + students[i].grades[2]) / 3;
                    int rank = 1;
                    for (int j = 0; j < num_students; j++) {
                        if (i != j && strcmp(students[j].major, class_name) == 0) {
                            float other_avg_grade = (students[j].grades[0] + students[j].grades[1] + students[j].grades[2]) / 3;
                            if (other_avg_grade > avg_grade) {
                                rank++;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    printf("%st%st%.1f %.1f %.1ft%dn", students[i].name, students[i].id, students[i].grades[0], students[i].grades[1], students[i].grades[2], rank);
                }
            }
            break;
        }
        default:
            printf("Invalid choice!n");
            break;
    }
}

void output_grades() {
    printf("1. By IDn");
    printf("2. By Namen");
    printf("3. By Graden");
    printf("Please enter your choice (1-3):n");
    int choice = 0;
    scanf("%d", &choice);
    switch (choice) {
        case 1:
            printf("Output by ID:n");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                printf("%st%st%.1f %.1f %.1fn", students[i].id, students[i].name, students[i].grades[0], students[i].grades[1], students[i].grades[2]);
            }
            break;
        case 2:
            printf("Output by Name:n");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                printf("%st%st%.1f %.1f %.1fn", students[i].name, students[i].id, students[i].grades[0], students[i].grades[1], students[i].grades[2]);
            }
            break;
        case 3:
            printf("Output by Grade:n");
            printf("NametIDtSumtAveragen");
            for (int i = 0; i < num_students; i++) {
                float sum_grade = students[i].grades[0] + students[i].grades[1] + students[i].grades[2];
                float avg_grade = sum_grade / 3;
                printf("%st%st%.1ft%.1fn", students[i].name, students[i].id, sum_grade, avg_grade);
            }
            break;
        default:
            printf("Invalid choice!n");
            break;
    }
}

void help() {
    printf("Welcome to Student Grade Management System!n");
    printf("1. Input Student Information: Input the name, ID, major and grades of a new student.n");
    printf("2. Update Student Information: Update the name, major or grades of a student, or delete a student.n");
    printf("3. Query Grades: Query the grades of a student by ID or name.n");
    printf("4. Report Grades: Generate a report of the grades of all students, by name, major, course or class.n");
    printf("5. Output Grades: Output the grades of all students, sorted by ID, name or grade.n");
    printf("6. Help: Show this message.n");
    printf("7. Exit: Exit the system.n");
}

void exit_system() {
    printf("Thank you for using Student Grade Management System, see you next time!n");
}


总结

        以上就是今天要讲的内容,本文仔细介绍了学生管理系统模块化的开发,提供了比较完整且有序的撰写思路,先前模块的思路仅供参考,最终以源码为准。如果觉得博主的文章能够帮到你,还记得点点关注,以下是博主的其它文章,有兴趣的小伙伴可以看看噢。

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