Linux入侵检测

入侵检测

查看日志

系统日志/var/log/messages

  • 记录服务启动,服务停止,身份切换,系统运行状态信息,网络错误,IO错误等等
  • 动态查看
[[email protected] ~]# tail -f /var/log/messages
Dec 15 11:53:07 server1 avahi-daemon[732]: Withdrawing address record for fd15:4ba5:5a2b:1008:4da0:9d6a:40a1:1e34 on ens33.
Dec 15 11:53:07 server1 avahi-daemon[732]: Registering new address record for fe80::d88e:564d:cf7b:13ef on ens33.*.
Dec 15 11:53:07 server1 NetworkManager[800]: <info>  [1639540387.4543] device (ens33): ipv6: duplicate address check failed for the fd15:4ba5:5a2b:1008:4da0:9d6a:40a1:1e34/64 lft 86400sec pref 14400sec lifetime 276-276[14400,86400] dev 2 flags noprefixroute,tentative src kernel address
Dec 15 11:53:07 server1 avahi-daemon[732]: Registering new address record for fd15:4ba5:5a2b:1008:b574:ef81:d29e:3c75 on ens33.*.
Dec 15 11:53:07 server1 avahi-daemon[732]: Withdrawing address record for fe80::d88e:564d:cf7b:13ef on ens33.
Dec 15 11:53:31 server1 systemd-logind: New session 3 of user root.
Dec 15 11:53:31 server1 systemd: Started Session 3 of user root.
Dec 15 11:54:15 server1 journal: shell-extensions did not set error for gs_plugin_refresh
Dec 15 11:55:16 server1 chronyd[763]: Selected source 202.118.1.130
Dec 15 11:56:21 server1 chronyd[763]: Source 162.159.200.123 replaced with 119.28.206.193

安全日志/var/log/secure

  • 记录了安全信息,系统登录,网络连接等信息
  • 查看远程登录失败日志
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/secure |grep Failed
Dec 15 12:14:51 server1 sshd[4917]: Failed password for root from 192.168.139.10 port 43456 ssh2
Dec 15 12:14:59 server1 sshd[4917]: Failed password for root from 192.168.139.10 port 43456 ssh2
  • 查看远程登录成功日志
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/secure |grep Accepted
Dec 15 13:38:18 server5 sshd[47938]: Accepted password for root from 192.168.139.10 port 43458 ssh2
  • 统计次数
 [[email protected] ~]# grep -i Accepted /var/log/secure |awk '{print $(NF-3)}' |sort |uniq -c
      3 192.168.139.10
      1 192.168.139.20

# 确保统计不出错
[[email protected] ~]# grep -i Accepted /var/log/secure |awk '{print $(NF-3)}' |grep '^[0-9]' |sort |uniq -c |sort -rn
      3 192.168.139.10
      1 192.168.139.20

last用户登录信息

  • last
[[email protected] ~]# last
zhangsan pts/2        192.168.139.10   Wed Dec 15 13:52   still logged in   
root     pts/2        192.168.139.20   Wed Dec 15 13:44 - 13:44  (00:00)    
root     pts/2        192.168.139.10   Wed Dec 15 13:41 - 13:41  (00:00)    
root     pts/2        192.168.139.10   Wed Dec 15 13:40 - 13:40  (00:00)    
root     pts/2        192.168.139.10   Wed Dec 15 13:38 - 13:38  (00:00)    
  • 踢除用户
[[email protected] ~]# w
 13:54:03 up  2:05,  4 users,  load average: 0.00, 0.01, 0.05
USER     TTY      FROM             [email protected]   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU WHAT
root     :0       :0               一16   ?xdm?   1:43   0.52s /usr/libexec/gnome-session-binary --session gnome-cla
root     pts/0    :0               一16   19:47   0.17s  0.07s bash
root     pts/1    192.168.139.1    11:53    3.00s  0.14s  0.00s w
zhangsan pts/2    192.168.139.10   13:52    1:09   0.01s  0.01s -bash

[[email protected] ~]# pkill -t pts/2
[[email protected] ~]$ Connection to 192.168.139.50 closed by remote host.
Connection to 192.168.139.50 closed.

[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/messages|grep zhangsan
Dec 15 13:52:54 server5 systemd: Created slice User Slice of zhangsan.
Dec 15 13:52:54 server5 systemd: Started Session 23 of user zhangsan.
Dec 15 13:52:54 server5 systemd-logind: New session 23 of user zhangsan.
Dec 15 13:58:49 server5 systemd: Removed slice User Slice of zhangsan.
  • 查看最后5条
[[email protected] ~]# last -a -5
zhangsan pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:52 - 13:58  (00:05)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:44 - 13:44  (00:00)     192.168.139.20
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:41 - 13:41  (00:00)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:40 - 13:40  (00:00)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:38 - 13:38  (00:00)     192.168.139.10

wtmp begins Sat Jul 24 17:36:07 2021
  • 查看指定时间
查看2021-12-15 14:00:00之前的信息
[[email protected] ~]# last -a -t 20211215140000
zhangsan pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:52 - 13:58  (00:05)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:44 - 13:44  (00:00)     192.168.139.20
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:41 - 13:41  (00:00)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:40 - 13:40  (00:00)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 13:38 - 13:38  (00:00)     192.168.139.10
root     pts/2        Wed Dec 15 12:15 - 13:36  (01:21)     192.168.139.10
  • 查看登录系统的用户的信息
[[email protected] ~]#  last -a -f /var/log/btmp
zhagsan  ssh:notty    Wed Dec 15 13:52    gone - no logout  192.168.139.10

btmp begins Wed Dec 15 13:52:46 2021
  • 查看登录日志
[[email protected] ~]# lastlog
用户名           端口     来自             最后登陆时间
root             pts/2    192.168.139.20   三 12月 15 13:44:35 +0800 2021
bin                                        **从未登录过**
daemon                                     **从未登录过**
nfsnobody                                  **从未登录过**
gdm              :0                        一 12月 13 16:50:55 +0800 2021
gnome-initial-setup                           **从未登录过**
tcpdump                                    **从未登录过**
avahi                                      **从未登录过**
zhangsan         pts/2    192.168.139.10   三 12月 15 13:52:54 +0800 2021
  • 统计当前在线状态
[[email protected] ~]# w
 14:12:18 up  2:23,  3 users,  load average: 0.12, 0.06, 0.05
USER     TTY      FROM             [email protected]   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU WHAT
root     :0       :0               一16   ?xdm?   1:52   0.52s /usr/libexec/gnome-session-binary --session gnome-cla
root     pts/0    :0               一16   38:02   0.17s  0.07s bash
root     pts/1    192.168.139.1    11:53    2.00s  0.20s  0.00s w  
  • 踢除用户
[[email protected] ~]# w
 13:54:03 up  2:05,  4 users,  load average: 0.00, 0.01, 0.05
USER     TTY      FROM             [email protected]   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU WHAT
root     :0       :0               一16   ?xdm?   1:43   0.52s /usr/libexec/gnome-session-binary --session gnome-cla
root     pts/0    :0               一16   19:47   0.17s  0.07s bash
root     pts/1    192.168.139.1    11:53    3.00s  0.14s  0.00s w
zhangsan pts/2    192.168.139.10   13:52    1:09   0.01s  0.01s -bash

[[email protected] ~]# pkill -t pts/2
[[email protected] ~]$ Connection to 192.168.139.50 closed by remote host.
Connection to 192.168.139.50 closed.

[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/messages|grep zhangsan
Dec 15 13:52:54 server5 systemd: Created slice User Slice of zhangsan.
Dec 15 13:52:54 server5 systemd: Started Session 23 of user zhangsan.
Dec 15 13:52:54 server5 systemd-logind: New session 23 of user zhangsan.
Dec 15 13:58:49 server5 systemd: Removed slice User Slice of zhangsan.

计划任务

  • 注意查看是否被恶意改动
[[email protected] ~]# crontab -l
* * * * * echo hello >> /root/1.txt
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/spool/cron/root 
* * * * * echo hello >> /root/1.txt

查看计划任务日志
[[email protected] ~]# tail -5 /var/log/cron
Dec 15 14:01:01 server5 CROND[48405]: (root) CMD (run-parts /etc/cron.hourly)
Dec 15 14:01:01 server5 run-parts(/etc/cron.hourly)[48405]: starting 0anacron
Dec 15 14:01:01 server5 run-parts(/etc/cron.hourly)[48414]: finished 0anacron
Dec 15 14:10:01 server5 CROND[48511]: (root) CMD (/usr/lib64/sa/sa1 1 1)
Dec 15 14:14:53 server5 crontab[48557]: (root) LIST (root)

防止日志被恶意删除

  • chattr +a 只能追加
[[email protected] ~]# chattr +a /var/log/secure
[[email protected] ~]# lsattr /var/log/secure
-----a---------- /var/log/secure

查看启动时默认加载文件

  • 注意查看是否被恶意改动

  • /etc/rc.local

[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/rc.local 
#!/bin/bash
# THIS FILE IS ADDED FOR COMPATIBILITY PURPOSES
#
# It is highly advisable to create own systemd services or udev rules
# to run scripts during boot instead of using this file.
#
# In contrast to previous versions due to parallel execution during boot
# this script will NOT be run after all other services.
#
# Please note that you must run 'chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.local' to ensure
# that this script will be executed during boot.

touch /var/lock/subsys/local

查看异常流量

iftop动态查看网卡接口流量

[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y epel-release.noarch 
[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y iftop
[[email protected] ~]# iftop -i ens33
interface: ens33
IP address is: 192.168.139.10
MAC address is: 00:0c:29:17:9d:b3
# 键入q退出

在这里插入图片描述

流量监控

  • 常用监控软件zabbix,Prometheus等

数据包抓取

  • 常用抓包工具:wireshark,tcpdump,sniffer
  • 这里重点介绍tcpdump(不需要图形化界面,常用于生产环境抓包,但抓取的包不便于分析,常将tcpdump抓取的包导入到wireshark中分析)
  • tcpdump安装
[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y tcpdump.x86_64 
  • 帮助信息
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump --help
tcpdump version 4.9.2
libpcap version 1.5.3
OpenSSL 1.0.2k-fips  26 Jan 2017
Usage: tcpdump [-aAbdDefhHIJKlLnNOpqStuUvxX#] [ -B size ] [ -c count ]
		[ -C file_size ] [ -E algo:secret ] [ -F file ] [ -G seconds ]
		[ -i interface ] [ -j tstamptype ] [ -M secret ] [ --number ]
		[ -Q|-P in|out|inout ]
		[ -r file ] [ -s snaplen ] [ --time-stamp-precision precision ]
		[ --immediate-mode ] [ -T type ] [ --version ] [ -V file ]
		[ -w file ] [ -W filecount ] [ -y datalinktype ] [ -z postrotate-command ]
		[ -Z user ] [ expression ]
[[email protected] ~]# man tcpdump
  • 常用选项汇总
选项 说明 用法
-i 指定网络接口 -i any 所有网卡接口
-nn 直接以IP和端口号显示
-v 输出详细信息 -nnv 可连用
-c 指定抓包数 -c 100
-w 指定保存文件 -w file1.tcpdump
-r 指定读取文件 -r file1.tcpdump
port 指定端口 port 22
net 指定网段 net 192.168.139.0/24
host 指定主机 host 192.168.139.10
指定协议 arp | icmp | udp | tcp | ip | vrrp
and|or|not 指定逻辑关系 host 192.168.139.10 and port 22
tcp[13] 指定TCP的标志位 tcp[13]==18
  • 抓取指定数量的包
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv -c 3
tcpdump: listening on ens33, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
01:31:59.425640 IP (tos 0x10, ttl 64, id 20374, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 164)
    192.168.139.10.22 > 192.168.139.1.50180: Flags [P.], cksum 0x97f3 (incorrect -> 0xa671), seq 2409031745:2409031869, ack 3240402273, win 257, length 124
01:31:59.426051 IP (tos 0x10, ttl 64, id 20375, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 332)
    192.168.139.10.22 > 192.168.139.1.50180: Flags [P.], cksum 0x989b (incorrect -> 0xd4ee), seq 124:416, ack 1, win 257, length 292
01:31:59.426336 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 128, id 20424, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 40)
    192.168.139.1.50180 > 192.168.139.10.22: Flags [.], cksum 0x6c54 (correct), ack 416, win 4106, length 0
3 packets captured
3 packets received by filter
0 packets dropped by kernel
  • 保存抓取的包
保存
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv -w ./file1.tcpdump
tcpdump: listening on ens33, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
^C105 packets captured
109 packets received by filter
0 packets dropped by kernel

读取文件(建议导出到wireshark中)
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv -r ./file1.tcpdump
  • 抓取指定端口数据包
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv port 22
  • 抓取指定网段的包
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv net 192.168.139.0/24
  • 抓取指定主机的包
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv host 192.168.139.50
  • 指定协议
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv arp
  • 多条件(and|or|not)
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv host 192.168.139.50 and port 22
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv port 22 or 80
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv not port 22

括号需要进行转义
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv host 192.168.139.50 and ( port 22 or 80)
  • 按照TCP的标志位来抓包
仅抓取SYN=1的包
|C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
|--------------- |
|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 |
|--------------- |
|7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|
tcp[13] == 2^1
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv tcp[13]==2
tcpdump: listening on ens33, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
02:27:09.131125 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 3847, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 60)
    192.168.139.50.54412 > 192.168.139.10.22: Flags [S], cksum 0x4710 (correct), seq 2439561938, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 10407381 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0

抓取SYN=1且Ack=1的包
|C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
|--------------- |
|0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 |
|--------------- |
|7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|
tcp[13] == 2^1 + 2^4 = 18
[[email protected] ~]# tcpdump -i ens33 -nnv tcp[13]==18
tcpdump: listening on ens33, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
02:30:17.991000 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 0, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 60)
    192.168.139.10.22 > 192.168.139.50.54414: Flags [S.], cksum 0x97bc (incorrect -> 0x8e2a), seq 1084900368, ack 3292405268, win 28960, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 26330013 ecr 10596245,nop,wscale 7], length 0

查看可疑进程

PS

[[email protected] ~]# ps
   PID TTY          TIME CMD
  1732 pts/1    00:00:00 bash
  2104 pts/1    00:00:00 ps

[[email protected] ~]# pstree
systemd─┬─NetworkManager───2*[{NetworkManager}]
        ├─atd
        ├─auditd───{auditd}
        ├─crond
        ├─dbus-daemon
        ├─irqbalance
        ├─login───bash
        ├─lvmetad
        ├─master─┬─pickup
        │        └─qmgr
        ├─polkitd───6*[{polkitd}]
        ├─rsyslogd───2*[{rsyslogd}]
        ├─sshd─┬─sshd───bash───pstree
        │      └─sshd───bash
        ├─systemd-journal
        ├─systemd-logind
        ├─systemd-udevd
        └─tuned───4*[{tuned}]

[[email protected] ~]# pstree -p
systemd(1)─┬─NetworkManager(672)─┬─{NetworkManager}(685)
           │                     └─{NetworkManager}(688)
           ├─atd(677)
           ├─auditd(640)───{auditd}(641)
           ├─crond(675)
           ├─dbus-daemon(664)
           ├─irqbalance(669)
           ├─login(679)───bash(1398)
           ├─lvmetad(514)
           ├─master(1096)─┬─pickup(1969)
           │              └─qmgr(1106)
           ├─polkitd(671)─┬─{polkitd}(682)
           │              ├─{polkitd}(683)
           │              ├─{polkitd}(684)
           │              ├─{polkitd}(686)
           │              ├─{polkitd}(692)
           │              └─{polkitd}(700)
           ├─rsyslogd(898)─┬─{rsyslogd}(912)
           │               └─{rsyslogd}(921)
           ├─sshd(895)─┬─sshd(1730)───bash(1732)───pstree(2107)
           │           └─sshd(1986)───bash(1988)
           ├─systemd-journal(495)
           ├─systemd-logind(668)
           ├─systemd-udevd(520)
           └─tuned(897)─┬─{tuned}(1303)
                        ├─{tuned}(1304)
                        ├─{tuned}(1306)
                        └─{tuned}(1308)

top

[[email protected] ~]# top
top - 02:37:54 up  7:31,  3 users,  load average: 0.00, 0.01, 0.05
Tasks: 109 total,   1 running, 108 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
%Cpu(s):  0.0 us,  0.0 sy,  0.0 ni,100.0 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
KiB Mem :  1863016 total,  1313968 free,   139552 used,   409496 buff/cache
KiB Swap:  2097148 total,  2097148 free,        0 used.  1568588 avail Mem 

   PID USER      PR  NI    VIRT    RES    SHR S  %CPU %MEM     TIME+ COMMAND                                         
     1 root      20   0  125396   3864   2580 S   0.0  0.2   0:02.82 systemd                                         
     2 root      20   0       0      0      0 S   0.0  0.0   0:00.04 kthreadd                                        
     4 root       0 -20       0      0      0 S   0.0  0.0   0:00.00 kworker/0:0H                                    
     6 root      20   0       0      0      0 S   0.0  0.0   0:00.60 ksoftirqd/0                                     
     7 root      rt   0       0      0      0 S   0.0  0.0   0:00.11 migration/0 

netstat | ss

[[email protected] ~]# ss -tnalp
State      Recv-Q Send-Q              Local Address:Port                             Peer Address:Port              
LISTEN     0      128                             *:22                                          *:*                   users:(("sshd",pid=895,fd=3))
LISTEN     0      100                     127.0.0.1:25                                          *:*                   users:(("master",pid=1096,fd=13))
LISTEN     0      128                          [::]:22                                       [::]:*                   users:(("sshd",pid=895,fd=4))
LISTEN     0      100                         [::1]:25                                       [::]:*                   users:(("master",pid=1096,fd=14))

lsof

查看文件正在被哪个进程使用
[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y lsof.x86_64 
[[email protected] ~]# lsof /usr/sbin/vsftpd 
COMMAND  PID USER  FD   TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF  NODE NAME
vsftpd  2305 root txt    REG  253,0   175440 34598 /usr/sbin/vsftpd

查看端口对应的进程
[[email protected] ~]# lsof -i:21
COMMAND  PID USER   FD   TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
vsftpd  2305 root    4u  IPv6  28498      0t0  TCP *:ftp (LISTEN)
[[email protected] ~]# lsof -i:80
COMMAND  PID   USER   FD   TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
httpd   2207   root    4u  IPv6  28161      0t0  TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd   2209 apache    4u  IPv6  28161      0t0  TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd   2210 apache    4u  IPv6  28161      0t0  TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd   2211 apache    4u  IPv6  28161      0t0  TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd   2212 apache    4u  IPv6  28161      0t0  TCP *:http (LISTEN)
httpd   2213 apache    4u  IPv6  28161      0t0  TCP *:http (LISTEN)

文件完整性检查

rpm -V 查看是否被修改

查看程序是否被改动过(改动过有输出信息)
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -V bash
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -V kernel
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -V vsftpd 
S.5....T.  c /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

查看文件是否被改动过
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -Vf /etc/ssh/sshd_config 
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -Vf /etc/vimrc 
S.5....T.  c /etc/vimrc

md5sum/sha1sum检测

/etc下的所有文件的md5值保存
[[email protected] ~]# find /etc/ -type f -exec md5sum {} ; >/tmp/`date +%F%H%M`-md5.txt
[[email protected] ~]# ls /tmp
2021-12-170905-md5.txt

改动后,重新获取md5值
[[email protected] ~]# useradd lisi
[[email protected] ~]# find /etc/ -type f -exec md5sum {} ; >/tmp/`date +%F%H%M`-md5.txt
[[email protected] ~]# ls /tmp
2021-12-170905-md5.txt  2021-12-170907-md5.txt

比对
[[email protected] ~]# diff /tmp/2021-12-170905-md5.txt /tmp/2021-12-170907-md5.txt 
131,132c131,132
< 6f7bff7528a7070187413f81aabc4ec6  /etc/group
< 65c1ca34722f36e894242feab65ed5d9  /etc/gshadow
---
> 6d19d476fa4c7fbbd05a1a7953c0924e  /etc/group
> 99dd21b5cf1c71a2e3f7f1cc0748ce85  /etc/gshadow
142c142
< ae3528ee5249fb2ddf53fc7e234878b7  /etc/passwd-
---
> 3cd3164769c7b752d66029dc55b73aa2  /etc/passwd-
144c144
< 64c95b17cdf5a238a0ebea457f5eb669  /etc/shadow-
---
> 3ace88c62868ca706d2c06a495ccf8a8  /etc/shadow-
164c164
< 3cd3164769c7b752d66029dc55b73aa2  /etc/passwd
---
> 17a763851849be93b48f8cce372eaec0  /etc/passwd
192c192
< 3ace88c62868ca706d2c06a495ccf8a8  /etc/shadow
---
> d88f5089fb906976e57a6b8593b18172  /etc/shadow
198c198
< 2400442adc077d0d6cb87e17f0235fb6  /etc/subgid
---
> e99230901b3bbc937cd8e272f78a5de7  /etc/subgid
200c200
< 2400442adc077d0d6cb87e17f0235fb6  /etc/subuid
---
> e99230901b3bbc937cd8e272f78a5de7  /etc/subuid
1647,1648c1647,1648
< 075a96365cd07c64136dd35d5a31f988  /etc/gshadow-
< 56b4e499638cda31f965a5379f93b6a9  /etc/group-
---
> 65c1ca34722f36e894242feab65ed5d9  /etc/gshadow-
> 6f7bff7528a7070187413f81aabc4ec6  /etc/group-
1745,1746c1745,1746
< d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e  /etc/subuid-
< d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e  /etc/subgid-
---
> 2400442adc077d0d6cb87e17f0235fb6  /etc/subuid-
> 2400442adc077d0d6cb87e17f0235fb6  /etc/subgid-

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